Duiker Chapter 12 Guided Reading Questions Directions: To truly understand the information you will be reading this year, it is important for you to be actively involved with the material. To help you with this process, we are providing you with these guiding questions to help you organize the textbook information. As you read the textbook, answer these guiding questions in your own words and in complete sentences. While this may slow down the speed at which you read, this method will help you to connect with the material and to retain the information. 1. Describe the political system of the new Germanic kingdoms that formed in Europe after 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. the fall of the Western Roman Empire. How was the political structure organized? Who was at the top of the political hierarchy? How does Charlemagne’s coronation provide a significant example of this political system or organization? Describe the organization of the Christian church in Europe during this time period. What was the role played by monks? Of abbots? Of nuns? Of abbesses? Explain how the invasions of people like the Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings led to the feudal system in Europe. Why was the possession of land such an important component of the relationships found in feudalism? Fully describe this relationship. What was the role of peasants in the European feudal system? Describe the daily lives of the peasantry. Making references to Map 12.2, describe, in your own words, the system of agriculture used in the manor system. Trace the development of trade within Europe. What were the causes for the expansion of trade within Europe? What factors helped to facilitate trade between Europe and the rest of the world? Why did towns and cities remain largely independent of the European feudal system? How did the townspeople maintain this independence? Read the Comparative Essay: Cities in the Medieval World (found on pg. 340). Answer the question that follows the passage: Based on a comparison of these medieval cities, which of these civilizations do you think was the most advanced? Why? How did the cities mentioned in the essay differ from the cities of Europe that existed around the same time? Compare the kingdom of England with the kingdom of France. In what ways were the political structures of these two European kingdoms similar? In what ways were they different? What factors prevented the Holy Roman Empire into becoming a strong central monarchy that could control central and southern Europe? Describe the Investiture Controversy. What were its causes? How was it resolved? What were the similarities and differences in beliefs and practices of the Cistercian, Franciscan, and Dominican monastic orders. What was the purpose of the scholastic system? How did Saint Thomas Aquinas try to reconcile the conflict between the rational thought of Aristotle and the faith of the Catholic Church? What technological innovations made the building of Gothic cathedrals possible? How did the building of the Gothic cathedral lead to the expansion of trade and a middle class during the Middle Ages? What were the causes of the First Crusade? How successful were the Crusades? What were the major effects of the Crusades?