Name Class Date 19. What type of reaction is used to manufacture solid spreads from cooking oils? 20. Which hydrocarbon resists addition reactions? Ethers 21. An ether is a compound in which groups. is bonded to two carbon 22. How are ethers given a common name? 23. Circle the letter of each symmetrical ether. a. ethylmethyl ether b. diethyl ether c. diphenyl ether d. methylphenyl ether 24. Is the following sentence true or false? Ethers have higher boiling points than alcohols of comparable molar mass. Amines 25. When one, two, or three of the hydrogen atoms in carbon groups, the compound is classified as an amine. are replaced by 26. Circle the correct classification for a compound with the formula RNH2. a. primary amine b. secondary amine c. tertiary amine 23.3 Carbonyl Compounds Essential Understanding The functional group with the structure C═O is a carbonyl group. Lesson Summary Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds with carbonyl groups attached to at least one hydrogen for aldehydes and to two carbons for ketones. There are industrial uses for such aldehydes and ketones as formaldehyde and acetone. Aldehydes and ketones cannot form intermolecular hydrogen bonds, but they can attract each other because of their polarity. 351 Name Class Date Carboxylic Acids A carboxylic acid is a carbonyl group with a hydroxy group attached. Carboxylic acids are weak acids because they ionize weakly in solution. The -e ending is dropped and -oic acid is added when naming carboxylic acids. Carboxylic acids are abundant in nature and are found in citrus fruits and fats. Begin with carbonyl group Add General formula aldehyde C═O R and H or H and H RCHO ketone C═O R&R RCOR carboxylic acid C═O OH RCOOH To make a(n) How to name Drop -e and add –al Drop -e and add –one Add number at beginning to note position of added group Drop -e and add -oic acid Esters An ester is formed when the —OR group from an alcohol replaces the —OH of a carboxyl group. Esters are found in fruit and are used in perfumes because of their pleasant, fruity aromas. The general formula of an ester is RCOOR. Esters may be prepared from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in a process called esterification. After reading Lesson 23.3, complete the following questions. Aldehydes and Ketones 1. A oxygen atom. consists of a carbon joined by a double bond to an 2. What is the difference between an aldehyde and a ketone? 3. What ending is used in the IUPAC system to indicate an aldehyde? A ketone? 4. Circle the letter of each statement that is true about aldehydes and ketones. a. In an aldehyde or ketone sample, the molecules cannot form intermolecular hydrogen bonds. b. The molecules in an aldehyde or ketone sample do not attract each other through polar–polar interactions. c. Most aldehydes and ketones are gases at room temperature. d. Aldehydes and ketones can form weak hydrogen bonds with water. Name Class Date Match the aldehyde or ketone with its use. 5. methanal a. almond flavoring 6. propanone b. preservative 7. benzaldehyde c. oil of cinnamon 8. 3-phenyl-2-propenal d. solvent 9. Aromatic aldehydes are often used as agents. Carboxylic Acids 10. What is a carboxyl group? 11. Is the following sentence true or false? Carboxylic acids are weak acids. 12. What ending is used under the IUPAC system to designate a carboxylic acid? 13. Carboxylic acids with three or more carbons in a straight chain are also known as acids. 14. Complete the table about saturated aliphatic carboxylic acids. IUPAC name Common name Carbon atoms Formula 4 CH3(CH2)2COOH Octanoic acid CH3(CH2)6COOH Acetic acid Octadecanoic acid 2 Stearic acid Esters 23. An ester is a derivative of a substituted for the —OH. that has an —OR 24. Write the general formula for an ester. 25. What two products are formed when an ester is hydrolyzed in the presence of a strong acid or base?