7. a) Aldehydes and Ketones

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Aldehydes and Ketones

*Aldehydes and ketones are characterized by the presence of the

same

functional group –

_____________. The

carbonyl

functional group consists of a carbon atom double bonded to an

____________ atom. What distinguishes aldehydes and ketones from one another structurally is the ______________ of the carbonyl group.

*In

aldehydes

, the carbonyl group is

located at the end (or beginning)

of the carbon chain, and will therefore be bonded to

at least one

____________ atom.

*In

ketones

, the carbonyl group occurs in the interior of the carbon chain, and will therefore be bonded to two __________ groups.

Naming Aldehydes

*When naming

aldehydes

, add ________to the prefix of the parent alkane.

Examples:

methan

al

(formaldehyde) ethan

al

(acetaldehyde) propan

al

butan

al

Q. Why is it

not

necessary to write a number in front of

any

aldehyde?

Naming Ketones

*When naming

ketones

, add ________to the prefix of the parent alkane.

Examples:

propan

one

(acetone) butan

one

*2-pentan

one

3-pentan

*When the ketone exceeds _______ carbons in length, a number must be included. Why?

Q. Why is it impossible to have a ketone that is

one or two

carbons in length?

one

Review:

How are aldehydes and ketones synthesized?

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