Introduction to Computers

Business Computer Information Systems I
Knowing how to use a computer is a basic
skill necessary to succeed in business or to
function effectively in society.
Use of computer technology is widespread in
the world.
Knowing how to use common Application
Software is an essential skill for practically
An electronic device, operating under the
control of instructions stored in its own memory
unit, that can
 accept data (input)
 manipulate the data according to specified rules
 produce information (output) from the processing
 store the results for future use.
Generally the term is used to describe a
collection of devices that function together as a
Monitor (output)
Speaker (output)
Keyboard (input)
Mouse (input)
System Unit (processing,
memory and storage)
Modem (communications)
Printer /Scanner(output)
Hard disk drive (storage)
Flash drive (storage)
Computers can perform
four general operations.
These operations
comprise the information
processing cycle
All computer processing
requires data input.
Data – The raw facts including
numbers, words, images, video,
and sounds given to the
computer during the input
Computers manipulate data to
create information.
Information – data that is
organized, has meaning, and is
During the output operation,
the information created is put
into some form, such as a
printed report, an invoice, a
web page, or a paycheck.
The operations occur through
the use of electronic circuits
contained on small silicon chips
(microchips) inside the
computer within billionths of a
It must be given a detailed set of instructions
(computer program or software ) that tells it
exactly what to do.
Programs are stored in the computer.
The computer can begin to operate by
executing the program’s first instruction.
It executes one program instruction after
another until the job is complete.
Allow you to enter data, programs, commands, and user
responses into a computer.
Keyboard – primary
Mouse – primary
Reading devices
Digital cameras
Audio and video input devices
Devices for the physically challenged users
Contains the electronic circuits that cause
processing to occur.
Control unit – interprets the instruction
Arithmetic/logic unit – performs the logical
and arithmetic processes.
Designed into a chip called a microprocessor.
Called Random Access Memory – RAM, consists of
electronic components that store data including numbers,
letters of the alphabet, graphics, and sound.
Measured in Kilobytes (1 thousand memory locations),
Megabytes (1 million) Gigabytes (one billion), Terabyte (1
thousand billion) Petabyte (one thousand terabytes), etc.
A Byte is a basic unit of memory measurement.
Printers (hard copy)
 Ink-jet printer – nozzle that
sprays drops of ink onto the
 Laser printer – use a process
similar to a copying machine.
 Photo printer – creates
photographic output
Monitors - TV-like display
CD-ROMs – used to store large
amounts of prerecorded
Hard Disks – housed
permanently inside the system
unit—not portable.
DVD-ROMs – very high capacity
compact disc capable of storing
from 4.7 GB to 17 GB
Flash Drives (Pen Drives) - High
capacity, removable storage
System Software – programs to control the
operations of computer equipment.
 Operating System – Set of programs instructing the
computer on how to perform the functions of loading,
storing, and executing an application program.
Microsoft Windows XP
Application Software – programs that tell a
computer how to produce information.
MS Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint, Outlook
Word Processing – used to
create, edit, format, and
print documents.
MS Word 2007
Spreadsheet – allows the
user to add, subtract, and
perform user-defined
calculations on rows and
columns of numbers.
MS Excel 2007
Database – allows the user
to enter, retrieve, and
update data in an
organized and efficient
MS Access 2007
Presentation Graphics –
allows the user to create
documents called slides to
be used in making
MS PowerPoint 2007
Network – a collection of computers and devices
connected together via communication media and devices
that share hardware, software, data, and information.
The Internet – largest worldwide collection of networks
that links together millions of computers by means of
modems, telephone resources, satellites & data.
WWW – popular segment of the Internet
URL – Uniform Resource Locator -unique address of a
Web page (protocol, domain name and path)
Determine what application software products you will use
on your computer.
Before buying a computer system, do some research.
Speed of processor
Size and types of memory and storage
Input/output devices
Communications devices
Overall system cost (cheapest isn’t always the best)
Stick with brand names
Do comparison shopping