Nervous, Special Senses & Endocrine Unit Study Guide 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Describe the functions of the nervous system. How does the nervous system differ from the endocrine system? Describe the two major divisions of the nervous system. Describe the two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system. Describe the two major divisions of the efferent division of the peripheral nervous system. 6. Describe the organization of the autonomic division, and characterize activities as belonging to one division or the other (for example, digestion is parasympathetic). 7. Describe the structure and function of a neuron. 8. Name and give the function of the four types of neuroglia in the CNS. 9. Name and give the function of the two types of neuroglia in the PNS. 10. What is the purpose of the blood-brain barrier? 11. Know the difference between nuclei, ganglia, tracts, and nerves. 12. Describe the three ways of classifying a neuron structurally. 13. Describe the three ways of classifying a neuron functionally. 14. Why do many reflex arcs of the limbs rely only on the spinal cord and bypass the brain? 15. Describe the steps of an action potential in detail, including both synaptic and axonal transmission. You should include the roles of calcium, sodium, potassium, sodiumpotassium pumps, neurotransmitters such as dopamine and acetylcholine, and how the terms presynaptic neuron, post-synaptic neuron, inhibition, activation, depolarization, and repolarization relate. 16. Why is nerve transmission considered electrochemical? 17. Explain the difference in neural transmission between myelinated and unmyelinated neurons. 18. Locate and describe the function of the following parts of the brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, corpus callosum, brain stem, thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary, meninges, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus, auditory cortex, motor cortex, visual cortex, Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area, hippocampus, amygdala 19. What are gyri and sulci? 20. What is the difference between gray matter and white matter in the brain? 21. What is a stroke and what causes it? 22. Explain the causes and effects of Alzheimer’s disease. 23. Identify the location and function of the external eye structures (lacrimal glands, six muscles). 24. Describe the three layers of the eyeball, and be able to identify the following parts on a diagram: sclera, cornea, iris, pupil, aqueous humor, lens, ciliary bodies, choroid, retina, vitreous humor, optic nerve. 25. Explain the function of rods and cones and describe where they are most concentrated. 26. Explain why we have a blind spot. 27. Describe how images are perceived on the retina. 28. What are the optic tracts and the optic chiasma? 29. How do we determine depth? 30. Explain the causes and effects of the following eye disorders: myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia, glaucoma, cataracts, color blindness, astigmatism. 31. Identify structures of the outer ear and describe their functions. 32. Identify structures of the middle ear and describe their functions. 33. Identify structures of the inner ear and describe their functions. 34. Explain the steps that occur when people hear. 35. Explain how we sense the positions of our heads. 36. Explain how we sense acceleration. 37. Explain what causes an ear infection. 38. Explain some common causes of hearing damage. 39. Explain how olfaction occurs. 40. Explain how tasting occurs. 41. Describe the five types of taste receptors and identify the chemicals each responds to. 42. Explain the function of the endocrine system. 43. Identify the locations of the major endocrine glands and name the hormones produced by them. 44. What are target cells and target organs? 45. Explain the difference between the function of steroidal and nonsteroidal hormones. 46. Explain how negative feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. 47. Describe the three mechanisms by which endocrine glands are stimulated. 48. Identify the functions of the following hormones: GH, ADH, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, catecholamines. 49. Explain how TSH, T3, & T4 maintain homeostatic balance of body temperature and energy levels. 50. Explain the causes of dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, goiter, Graves disease, and diabetes. 51. Explain how calcitonin and PTH regulate homeostasis of blood calcium levels. 52. Explain how ACTH, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine regulate fight-or-flight response. 53. Explain how insulin, glucagon, and the liver regulate homeostasis of glucose and glycogen.