Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior Learning Objectives Introduction: Neuroscience and Behavior, pp. 46-47 1. Define neuroscience and biological psychology, and explain why psychologists study the biological basis of behavior. The Neuron, pp. 47–57 2. Describe the functions of neurons and glial cells, and distinguish among the three types of neurons. 3. Identify the basic components of the neuron, describe the action potential, and explain the processes that take place within the neuron when it is activated. 4. Explain how information is communicated between neurons, and distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory messages. 5. Describe how neurotransmitters affect synaptic transmission, identify six important neurotransmitters, and explain their effects on behavior. The Nervous System and the Endocrine System, pp. 57–63 6. Describe the functions of the two major parts of the central nervous system, and explain how spinal reflexes work. 7. Identify the divisions and subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system, and describe their functions. 8. Describe the general functions of the endocrine system, and explain the role hormones play. 9. Discuss the functions of the major endocrine glands, and explain the relationship between the hypothalamus and the endocrine glands. The Human Brain: A Guided Tour pp. 64–79 10. Explain how case studies of people with damaged brains, lesion techniques, and electrical stimulation have been used to study the brain. 11. Explain how modern brain-imaging techniques are used to study the brain, and identify some of the limitations of research using brain-imaging. 12. Discuss how the pseudoscience called phrenology evolved, and how it ultimately helped advance the idea of cortical localization. 13. Describe the basic sequence of prenatal brain development and the evidence for neurogenesis throughout life. 14. Identify the structures of the brain stem, and describe their functions. 15. Describe the forebrain’s cerebral cortex, and explain the functions of its four lobes and association areas. 16. Discuss the historical case of Phineas Gage, and explain how this case study affected thinking about the brain. 17. Describe the limbic system and the function of the brain structures that comprise it. Specialization in the Cerebral Hemispheres, pp. 79–85 18. Distinguish between the ideas of cortical localization and cortical lateralization. 19. Explain how the findings of Broca and Wernicke provided early clinical evidence for lateralization of function. 20. Explain how the brain organization of left-handed people can differ from that of right-handed people, and what factors might be involved in causing left-handedness. 21. Discuss the split-brain operation, and how it provided evidence for the differing abilities of left and right hemispheres. Application: Pumping Neurons: Maximizing Your Brain’s Potential, pp. 86–87 22. Discuss the research evidence for structural and functional plasticity, and how those findings can be applied to people.