Biology 122 Review for Midterm, 2015 1. Endocrine system: What is the endocrine system and how does it work? Be able to discuss specific glands, their location (be able to label them on a diagram-see page 998 in your text) and their functions (what hormones do they release and what do these hormones do). Be able to explain the difference between steroid and non-steroid hormones and how each enters and reacts in its target cells. Describe how feedback mechanisms of the endocrine system work, giving an example. How are blood sugar levels maintained? What happens when insulin is not produced at all or in sufficient quantities by the pancreas? Describe the types of diabetes. Define: hormones, target cells, gland, exocrine gland, endocrine gland, prostaglandins. Explain, using an example, how the endocrine system and nervous system work together. Describe the purpose of the male and female reproductive systems and what puberty is. Describe egg release and sperm release. Describe the stages of the menstrual cycle, including hormones involved and their levels at each stage. Discuss fertilization, including differentiation Describe the stages of “early development” . 2. Nervous System: What is the nervous system and what is its function? Be able to label a neuron and describe what each part does (Use the diagram). Three types of neurons and their functions. Describe the 2 types of reflexes (simple and complex arc) What is a stimulus? Where and how are stimuli received? (receptors) Describe a neuron when it is not carrying a nerve impulse (resting potential; polarized). Describe action potential, including the following terms: selectively permeable, NA+ ions, K+ ions, unequal distribution, polarized, depolarized, repolarized, refractory period. Describe threshold and the all-or-nothing principle. What are neurotransmitters? Name 2 types (excitatory and inhibitory) and describe what they do. Describe how pain is transmitted and how certain hormones and drugs interfere with this transmission. Be able to describe the two parts of the Central Nervous System and the systems within each of these. (Chart from board) Be able to identify parts of the brain and their functions. Be able to identify the lobes of the cerebral cortex and explain their function. 6. Biochem (macromolecules): Be able to: Describe an atom including its subatomic particles What is an isotope? Describe the pH Scale including what it measures, what acids and bases are and where each is found on the pH Scale Describe ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces, cohesion, adhesion, mixtures, solutions, monomers, polymers, elements, isotopes, dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis, Calorie, catatonic, anabolic Identify and describe the structure and function of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides) protein, and lipids (triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, waxes.