Psychology Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion Study questions Section 1--Theories of Motivation 1. Describe Motivations and give an example of them. 2. Explain the instinct Theory. Who proposed it and give examples. 3. Explain how need, drive, and homeostasis work together in drive reduction theory. 4. Explain Hull's components of drive reduction theory and how it effects biological motives. 5. Explain Harlow's surrogate mother experiment in relation to drive reduction theory. 6. What is an incentive? What are examples of them? 7. Compare and contrast extrinsic and intrinsic motivations and give examples of each. Section 2--Biological and Social Motives 1. What are examples of biological motives? 2. Explain biological and social factors that cause hunger and reduce hunger. 3. Explain the Schachter obesity study. 4. Explain the contributions of McClelland and his TAT's. Explain what the test measures and what the results proved. 5. Why are people motivated by fear of failure and fear of success? 6. Fully explain the Horner fear of success theory. 7. Describe expectancy--value theory and the competency theory. 8. Fully explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, covering physiological needs, psychological needs, and self-actualization. Section 3--Emotions 1. What is an emotion? 2. Describe the three components of Emotions. 3. Compare and contrast the James-Lange theory with that of the Cannon-Bard theory. 4. Fully explain the Schacter-Singer experiment. 5. Explain the Opponent-Process theory.