Motivation & Emotion

Motivation & Emotion
Theories of Motivation
• Motivation: an internal state that activates
behavior and directs it toward a goal
Instinct Theory
• Instincts: innate tendencies that determine
Drive-Reduction Theory
• Need: biological or psychological requirement
of an organism
• Drive: a state of tension produced by a need
that motivates an organism toward a goal
• Homeostasis: the tendency of all organisms to
correct imbalances and deviations from their
normal state.
Incentive Theory
• Incentive: an external stimulus, reinforcer, or
reward that motivates behavior
Cognitive Theory
• Extrinsic Motivation: engaging in activates that
either reduce biological needs or help us obtain
external incentives
• Intrinsic Motivation: engaging in activities
because they are personally rewarding or
because they fulfill our beliefs and
Biological and Social Motives
Biological Motives include :
Avoidance of Pain
• Lateral hypothalamus: the part of the
hypothalamus that produces hunger signals
hypothalamus: the part
of the hypothalamus
that can cause one to
stop eating
Hunger – Other Factors
• Psychosocial hunger factors: external cues that can
affect eating, such as where, when, and what we eat.
• Overweight: a person who is 20 percent over
his or her ideal body weight
• Obese: a person who is 30 percent or more
above his or her ideal body weight.
Social Motives
Measuring the Need for Achievement
• The achievement motive concerns the desire to
set challenging goals and to persist in trying to
reach those goals despite obstacles, frustrations,
and setbacks.
Test Image
Fear of Failure
• People display fear of failure when they choose
easy tasks offering assured success or
impossible tasks with no chance of success.
Fear of Success
• The pressure and stress of being successful add
anxieties and turns into fear.
• Some people believe that if they do not meet
their expectations or the expectations of others,
then they are showing weaknesses.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Fundamental needs: biological drives that must
be satisfied to maintain life
• Psychological Needs: the urge to belong and to
give and receive love, and the urge to acquire
• Self-actualization needs: the pursuit of
knowledge and beauty or whatever else is
required for the realization of one’s unique
Expressing Emotions
• Emotion: a set of complex reactions to stimuli
involving subjective feelings, physiological arousal,
and observable behavior
The James-Lange Theory
The Cannon – Bard Theory
Cognitive Theories
• The Schachter-Singer Experiment
Opponent-Process Theory