Chapter Three Chemistry Notes I. Solution Chemistry A. Solution-A mixture in which one substance dissolves into another 1. Solute-The substance that IS dissolved 2. Solvent- The substance that DOES the dissolving 3. Properties of a Solution a. Cannot be easily separated b. Appears clear c. May conduct electricity 4. Electrolytes- Substance whose water solution conducts electric current. Ex. Sport Drinks have KCL and NaCl (ionic) 5. Non-electrolytes- Solution that does not conduct electricity Ex. Sugar in water (covalent) B. Types of solutions Solute Solvent ExampleGas Gas Air ( O in N) Gas Liquid Soda water (CO2 in H2O) Gas Solid Charcoal gas mask (gas on C) Liquid Gas Humid Air (H2O in air) Liquid Liquid Antifreeze (C6H7 in H2O) Liquid Solid Dental filling (Hg in Ag) Solid Gas Soot in air (C in air) Solid Liquid Ocean water(NaCl inH2O) Solid Solid Gold jewelry (Cu in Au) C. Rates of Solutions- similar to rate of collision theory in chemical reactions. D. Solubility- The rate of the solute dissolving into the solvent. (Speed) 1. Temperaturea. (solid vs. liquid) direct relationship Increase Temp = Increase Solubility Ex. Sugar in hot tea vs. cold tea b.(gas in liquid) indirect relationship Increase temp=decreases solubility 2. Pressurea. gas in liquid increase pressure increases solubility. E.Concentration- amount of solute dissolved into the solvent. The opposite is dilute. Ex. Orange juice pulp = concentrated Orange juice in water = dilute 1. Saturated solution= Contains as much solute as the solvent can possible hold 2. Unsaturated solution- Contains less solute than it can possible hold at a given temperature. F. Special Properties II. ACIDS AND BASES A. Properties of Acids 1. Sour taste ex. Lemons 2. Effect the color of indicators a. Litmus- changes from blue to red. b. Phenolphthalein is colorless in acid 3. React with active metals to form H2 gas 4. Contain H- proton donor B. Common Acids – see page 74 C. Properties of Bases 1. Bitter tast 2. Effect the color of indicators a. Litmus- change from red to blue b. Phenolphthalein- turn bright pink 3. React with fat and oil to form soapcleaner. 4. Contain hydroxide (OH-) ion D. Common Bases III. ACID AND BASE in solution: SALTS A. pH Scale- The measure of the hydronium ion concentration (H3O) 1. Numbers 0 to 14 (fig 3-14) B. Determining Solution pH- use an indicator such as litmus paper or Phenolphthalein, methyl orange, bromthymol blue C. Formation of Salts-When acids react with bases they form a class of compounds called salt (neutralization.