12/15/14 Morning Review Please pull out study guide and a piece of paper to take notes. We’ll start at 7:05. You may grab a treat if you’d like one Finals • 100 ?’s scan tron • 85 minutes to take test Chemistry Review Concepts • • • • • • Matter Measuring Changes States Solutions pH 2.1 Describing Matter 1. Classify matter in terms of elements, compounds and mixtures Element = a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance Elements 2.1 Describing Matter 1. Classify matter in terms of elements, compounds and mixtures 6. What are elements, and how do they relate to compounds? Element = a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance Compound = a pure substance made of 2+ elements chemically combined (can’t physically separate) Mixtures = 2+ substances are combined physically Element Check • Are the following elements? – Aluminum (Al) – Copper (Cu) – Oxygen (O2) – Water (H2O) REVIEW ELEMENT vs COMPOUNDS • • • • • Nickel (Ni) Silver (Ag) Glass (SiO) Neon (Ne) Hydrogen (H2) 2.1 Describing Matter 1. Classify matter in terms of elements, compounds and mixtures 7. What are the properties of a mixture? Element = a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance Compound = a pure substance made of 2+ elements chemically combined (can’t physically separate) Mixtures = 2+ substances are combined physically 2.1 Describing Matter 2. Classify matter as being homogeneous or heterogeneous 8. What is the difference between a heterogeneous and homogeneous mixture? Homogeneous = evenly mixed, can’t see parts Ex: salt water Heterogeneous = unevenly mixed, can pick out pieces Ex: Chex Mix E, C or Mixture (He or Ho) 9. What is the difference between an element, compound and mixture? Give examples: • Copper (Cu) • Water (H2O) • Mixed Salad • Salt (NaCl) • Carbon (C ) • Air • Kool aid • Sugar E, C or Mixture (He or Ho) • • • • • • • • Copper (Cu) - ELEMENT Water (H2O) - COMPOUND Mixed Salad - HETEROGENEOUS Salt (NaCl) - COMPOUND Carbon (C ) - ELEMENT Air - HOMOGENEOUS Kool aid - HOMOGENEOUS Sugar - COMPOUND 2.1 Describing Matter 4. Determine physical and chemical properties of matter 5. What kinds of properties are used to describe matter • PHYSICAL PROPERTY = Can change its appearance physically • CHEMICAL PROPERTY = Can change what it is made up of (can change the atoms to make a new thing); can react WARM UP 8.14, answer if the examples are physical or chemical properties Write the property and then write PP or CP • Tear-able paper Physical property • Flammable Chemical property • Breakable Physical property • Boiling point Physical property • Ability to dissolve Physical property • Ability to rust Chemical property Put the following properties under the correct description: (24 properties) • • • • • • • • • • • • Volume Flammable Can rust Density Malleability Flexible Floats Mass Magnetic Boiling point Freezing point Bouncy • • • • • • • • • • • Can tarnish • Conducts electricity Corrosive • Smell Melting point State of matter • Viscosity Color Reactive Soluble pH Evaporates Reacts w/ water Conducts heat Put the following properties under the correct description: (24 properties) • • • • • • • • • • • • Volume Flammable Can rust Density Malleability Flexible Floats Mass Magnetic Boiling point Freezing point Bouncy • • • • • • • • • • • Can tarnish • Conducts electricity Corrosive • Smell Melting point State of matter • Viscosity Color Reactive Soluble pH Evaporates Reacts w/ water Conducts heat 2.2 Measuring Matter 1. Units for measurements 2. Scientific tools used to determine measurements Mass Volume Density Length Temperature 2.2 Measuring Matter • 1. Units for measurements Mass = grams, mg, kg (scale or triple beam balance) Volume = cm3 (LxWxH); mL (beaker, graduated cylinder); cm3 water displacement Density = g/mL or g/cm3 Length = meters, km, cm (ruler) Temperature = °C (thermometer) 2.2 Measuring Matter 3. Volume Cube Liquid Irregular shape 2.2 Measuring Matter 4. Density Density = amount of matter per space occupied D = M/V Density 1. Mass of an object is 400 g and the volume is 100 mL, what is the density? 2. Mass of the object is 400 g and the density is 10 g/mL, what is the volume? 3. Volume of the object is 10 cm3 and the density is 10 g/cm3, what is the mass? 2.3 Changes in Matter 1. & 2. What is a PC & CC? PHYSICAL CHANGE = an actual change to an object that does not change the chemical make up (arrangement of atoms) EX: state of matter change size change shape change CHEMICAL CHANGE = a new substance has formed EX: OCPGT What are the 5 evidences of a CC? • • • • • • • OCPGT Osos Can Produce Grande Turds Odor Color Change Precipitate Gas Produced Temperature Change 2.3 Changes in Matter • • • • • • • Cutting wood Breaking glass Burnt smell produced Boiling water The bag got hotter when mixed Food coloring was added A solid formed when the acid was mixed 2.3 Changes in Matter • • • • • • • Cutting wood - PHYSICAL Breaking glass - PHYSICAL Burnt smell produced - CHEMICAL Boiling water - PHYSICAL The bag got hotter when mixed - CHEMICAL Food coloring was added - PHYSICAL A solid formed when the acid was mixed - CHEMICAL 3.2 Changes of State 3.2 Changes of State 1. 2. 3. Substance during phase changes 3.2 Changes of State 4. Are changes in state a physical or chemical property? Does it change into a new substance? Ice liquid water steam 7.1 Understanding Solutions 1. What are the two parts of a solution? Solution = a well mixed mixture containing a solvent and at least one solute that has the same properties throughout Solvent = the part of the solution that is present in the largest amount; dissolves Solute = The part of the solution in the lesser amount; Gets dissolved What’s a solvent & solute? Water SOLVENT Sugar & lemon SOLUTE Examples SOLVENT • Water • Air • Water SOLUTE Salt Oxygen and other gases Carbon Dioxide You SOLUTE the SOLVENT 7.2 Concentration and Solubility 1. Why is solubility useful in identifying substances? Solubility = a measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature So if I keep adding sugar to my kool aid mix, will it ever get to a point where it stops dissolving? Each substance has it’s own point where it reaches maximum ability to dissolved and becomes saturated 7.2 Concentration and Solubility 2. What factors affect solubility? Concentration of solvent Concentration of solute Temperature Rate of stirring Catalyst 7.3 & .4 Describing Acids and Bases 1. What are the properties of acids & bases? Acids = range from 0-6; taste sour; turn litmus paper red; react with certain metals Ex: citrus, battery acid Bases = range from 8-14; taste bitter; turn litmus paper blue; slippery feel Ex: Ammonia, bleach 7.3 Acids and Bases 2. & 3. & 4. What does the pH of a solution tell you? 7.3 Acids and Bases 3. How are the strengths of acids and bases determined? Scales? • pH • Litmus paper • Indicators (bromo blue, phenol red & cabbage juice) Questions?