Third Nine Weeks Exam Study Guide Short Answer 1. A liquid mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration is a _________ 2. How is a solute different from a solvent in a solution? 3. How can a scientist safely tell whether an unknown solution is salt in water or sugar in water? 4. Weak tea is an example of a dilute/concentrated solution 5. When you add so much solute that no more dissolves, you have a 6. If two unidentified solids of the same texture and color have different solubilities in 100 grams of water at 20°C, you could conclude that are same/different 7. What is one way to increase the solubility of sugar in water? 8. How would a solute affect the boiling point of water? 9. When a solute is added to a solvent, the freezing point of the solution is higher,lower than 10. Which is a characteristic property of acids? 11. Acids are described as corrosive because they 12. Which is a likely use for a base? 13. In a water solution, how do acids differ from bases? in terms of hydroge and hydroxide ions 14. In water, bases form hydrogen/hydroxide ions 15. The pH scale measures 16. If you have a solution of a strong acid and a solution of a weak acid of equal concentration and volume, then the strong acid will have low/high ph 17. Neutralization is a reaction between a(n) 18. What does a neutralization reaction produce? 19. When a few spoonfuls of sugar are mixed into a cup of water, sugar is the solute/solvent 20. A measure of how well a solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature is that substance’s 21. A mixture containing particles that are too small to be seen easily but are large enough to scatter a light beam is called a 22. Acids naturally present in food are safe to eat because they usually are weak/strong 23. The only sure evidence for a chemical reaction is ________ in properties 24. A shorter, easier way to show chemical reactions, using symbols instead of words, is called a 25. The substances listed on the left side of a chemical equation are the 26. Mendeleev created the first periodic table by arranging elements in order of 27. How did chemists change Mendeleev’s periodic table in the early 1900s? 28. Most metals are (list propertes) 29. In the periodic table, the most reactive metals are found 30. To make most synthetic elements, scientists use powerful machines called 31. Which group contains the most elements? 32. Which property of bromine could you NOT predict based on the fact that it is a nonmetal in the halogen family? 33. How does nuclear fusion create new elements inside stars? 34. The sun is made up mostly of 35. A material is said to be ductile if it 36. The elements in a column of the periodic table have similar/different properties 37. The two most common alkaline earth metals are 38. What are the properties of transition metals ? 39. Which group of elements shares characteristics with both metals and nonmetals? 40. The elements that do not ordinarily form compounds are 41. Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine are part of a family called Use the diagram to answer each question. 42. What happens to the solubility of potassium nitrate (KNO3) as the temperature rises? 43. According to the graph, which of the compounds is most soluble at 0°C? Which is least soluble at 100°C? 44. Above 70°C, what other compounds besides ammonia (NH3) have a lower solubility than that of potassium nitrate (KNO3)? Use the diagram to answer each question. 45. Which group of elements reacts violent with elements from Group 1? 46. If a metal reacts violently with water, in which group is it likely to be found? 47. What name is given to the elements in Groups 3 through 12? How do their properties tend to compare with the elements to the left and right of these groups? 48. Most of the elements that form a zigzag line in the periodic table belong to one major group. What is that group, and what kinds of properties do its elements tend to have?