Middle Ages Study Guide VOCABULARY TERMS Battle of Tours Scholasticism Manorialism (manor system) Excommunicate Feudalism Castle Vassal and lord Guild Magna Carta Crusade Saladin Heresy Chivalry Vernacular Plague (Black Plague/Black Death) Inquisition MAPPING—map below North Sea Rhine River Alps Mountains Carpathian Mountains Atlantic Ocean Danube River Pyrenees Mountains Spain Italy England (UK) France Germany Scandinavia Germanic Kingdoms 1. Why was Charles Martel important? 2. How did Charlemagne change Europe? Invasions and the Holy Roman Empire/ Rise of the Catholic Church 3. Why were the Vikings considered so dangerous? Who is the most famous of these Vikings (Normans)? 4. Why was Otto I of Germany an important figure? 5. Why was Gregory I an important figure in the Catholic Church? 6. Why was the Concordat of Worms important? Feudalism 7. What is the difference between feudalism and manorialism (manor system)? 8. Draw the social pyramid of feudal Europe. Trade and Cities 9. How did trade change medieval life? 10. How did the way people trade change during this time? The Crusades 11. What were three reasons for the beginning of the Crusades? 12. Why did Crusades eventually stop? How did the Crusades affect Europe? France and Eastern European Kingdoms 13. Why is Philip IV of France important? (What were the three estates?) 14. Why was Alexander Nevsky important? What position did he create? Medieval Architecture and Learning 15. What is the difference between Romanesque and Gothic architecture? 16. What is scholasticism? Who was the most famous scholastic, and why? The Hundred Years’ War/Plague 17. What caused the Hundred Years’ War? 18. How did the plague lead to the end of feudalism?