Early Middle Ages: complete the chart by listing some of the effects

Early Middle Ages: complete the chart by listing some of the effects of the causes on Western Europe
The Early Middle Ages
The Fall of Rome
Frequent invasions
from barbarians
such as the Vikings
Roman road
networks become
unsafe to travel on
People flee the
cities to go live in
the countryside
People focused on
basic survival
The Franks:
During the Early Middle Ages, a tribe known as the Franks took over Gaul, today Gaul is modern day
Clovis I, King of the Franks, converted to Christianity and gained the support of the Church
Charles Martel stopped the spread of Islam into Western Europe when he defeated the Moors at the
Battle of Tours
Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Empire by the pope and was able to establish an empire that
stretched across modern day France, Germany, and part of Italy
 occurs when there is weak centralized government and the people need protection
 King divides land in exchange for military service and loyalty
 Nobles hold the real power
 Power based on the amount of land owned
 Knights follow a code of conduct known as chivalry
 Serfs are peasants bound to the land
Complete the feudal pyramid by identifying the groups at each level of the feudal system
Feudalism (continued)
Complete the feudalism obligations chart. Show the responsibilities that each group had towards the other
Manorial System:
 Economic system that developed along with Feudalism
 Primary economic activity was agriculture
 Manor was based on the concept of self sufficiency
Role of the Church during the Middle Ages
 served as a unifying force in Western Europe after the fall of Rome
 Monks and Nuns in monasteries and abbots helped preserve Greek and Roman knowledge
 Popes had spiritual influence over followers and over time developed secular power
 Popes were able to influence political leaders by threatening to excommunicate rulers who did not follow
the Church
 Popes and rulers often had conflicts over power in Europe
o Pope Gregory tried to expand power of the church over rulers
o Investiture Controversy developed over the right to appoint bishops
Monarchs begin to Centralize Power:
 William of Normandy conquers England at the Battle of Hastings in 1066
o Gave lands to Norman supporters; determines who builds castles and where
o Takes a census of called the Domesday Book in order to create an efficient tax system
 King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta
o Limited the power of the monarch
o King must obey the law
o Magna Carta leads to the formation of the Parliament
Complete the chart below by identifying effects of the Crusades on Europe and the Middle East
The Crusades
Muslims controlled the
Holy lands
Byzantine was
threatened by Seljuk
Pope Urban II calls for
Crusades at the Council
of Clermont
Improvements in Farming: Complete the concept map by identifying three improvements to farming that helped
lead to
to Farming
population growth in Western Europe during
the Middle Ages.
Commercial Revolution/ Growth of Cities and Towns
 Trade increased as a result of contact with Asia during the Crusades
 Italian city-states dominate trade in southern Europe; Flanders in the north
o Examples: Genoa, Venice, Hanseatic League
 Trade Fairs and trading centers helped lead to the growth of cities and towns
 Formation of towns helped weaken feudalism
 Demand increased for currency rather than barter
 Banks develop to protect and invest people’s money
 Skilled workers and merchants form trade guilds to set prices and standards for quality
 Middle class begins to develop
Art/Architecture/Literature/ Philosophy
 Architecture reflected the gothic style and use of flying buttress to construct much taller buildings
and huge stained glass windows
 Canterbury Tales and Song of Roland are examples of Medieval literature
 Thomas Aquinas studied Greek philosophy; tried to use reason and logic to support Christian religious
The Black Plague
Complete the chart by identifying the effects of the Black Plague on Europe
Starts in China and spreads along
trade routes towards the west
Spread linked to trade with Asia and
movement of Mongol invaders
Spread by “fleas on rats♪♪♪”
High fatality rate
Unsanitary conditions and crowded
cities helped spread the disease
Black Plague
Impact on Europe