Unit 5 Foldable Building An Empire



An Empire

1898 - 1918

Spanish-American War


Humanitarian Concerns

Yellow Journalism

Joseph Pulitzer

William Randolph Hearst

Protect U.S. economic interest in Cuba

De Lôme Letter called McKinley “weak”

Sinking of the U.S.S. Maine


U.S. get Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam

Cuba became a virtual U.S. protectorate

Why the War is Considered a Turning Point

Ended Spanish colonial empire in America

Saw emergence of US as a world Power

U.S. Colonial Empire

Reasons for Colonial Expansion

Need for raw materials and markets

Colonies would help U.S. naval strength

Nationalism – show other nations how strong U.S. had become

Missionaries sought to spread Christianity

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Wrote The Influences of Sea Power upon History

Argued for making U.S. into a world power

U.S. needed a strong navy to protect its colonial interests.

U.S. Involvement: Pacific

Philippines – Filipinos rebel and resist U.S. rule

Hawaii – Queen Liliuokalani tried to take political power back from the American landowners. Sandford Dole led to provisional government while it worked out U.S. annexation.

Pacific Islands – Guam, Samoa, Midway serve as refueling stations

U.S Involvement: East Asia

China European powers establish “spheres of influence” in China

John Hay’s Open Door Policy

Boxer Rebellion (1900) – uprising by Boxers against Western influence in China; foreign interventions suppresses the uprising

Japan – Commodore Perry opens Japan to trade and ends Japan’s traditional isolation

Treaty of Portsmouth 1905 – T. Roosevelt negotiated between Russia and Japan after Japan wins the Russo-Japanese War.

U.S Involvement: The Caribbean

Reasons for U.S. Interest in Caribbean

Hemispheric security

America acquires Puerto Rico and establishes indirect control of


Protect its economic investments

Panama Canal

Construction of Panama Canal

President T. Roosevelt helps Panamanians rebel against Colombia for a Canal Zone

U.S takes 10 years to construct canal, ends the need for a twoocean navy.

Dr Walter Reed discovered that yellow fever was spread by mosquitoes and Dr William Gorgas ordered all swamps drained, vegetation cut down, and all standing water sprayed with oil to prevent breeding of mosquitoes

Caribbean as an “American Lake”

U.S. Involvement: Latin America

Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine

The US would act as international police power

Big Stick Policy

Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy

American investment to promote American foreign policy

Wilson’s “Watchful Waiting” Policy

Refused to recognize Mexico’s new government

Pancho Villa killed people in Columbus NM, Wilson sent the American Expeditionary Force led by General John

Pershing to apprehend him

World War I

European Causes: nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and alliance system

Spark starting WWI was the assassination of Archduke

Franz Ferdinand

Reason for US intervention in the War.

Closer ties with Britain and France

German actions and propaganda

Zimmerman telegram/note

Violation of Freedom of the Seas

Sinking of the Lusitania/Sussex Pledge

Use of unrestricted submarine warfare

World War I Highlights

New weapons and tactics: submarines * early tanks machine guns * poison gas air planes * trench warfare

Selective Service Act allowed national government to draft men to serve in the war

American Expeditionary Force US troops sent to Europe to defeat Germany

Battle of Argonne Forest major battle of WWI. Germany was defeated

Alvin York was awarded the Congressional Medal of


World War I Results

Wilson’s Fourteen Points proposed by Wilson as a basis for the peace treaty

Create new nation-states: Poland

Break up Austria-Hungary

Freedom of the Seas

No secret treaties, open diplomacy

League of Nations

Versailles and other treaties ended the war and dealt harshly with Germany

Germany lost its colonies and had to pay reparations

Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey were broken up into separate nation-states

League of Nations created

Important Individuals

Archduke Franz Ferdinand – his assassination sparked the start of WWI

John Pershing – Commanded the American

Expeditionary Force during WWI

Woodrow Wilson – US President during WWI, issued Fourteen Points, and strongly supported US participation in the League of Nations

Henry Cabot Lodge – US Senator who led the fight against joining the League of Nations