PSY 450 Human Learning and Memory Midterm Examination Study Guide Know the definition of learning and be able to identify examples of it. Understand the difference between principles and theories along with advantages and disadvantages in their use. Know the parts of the neuron and what each part does. Also know myelination and the form messages take both within the neuron and between neurons. Be able to describe the differences between the midbrain, hindbrain and forebrain. Intrinsic v. Extrinsic reinforcement and the effects of using each. Lateralization – what is it? Synaptic pruning and early childhood. Bandura’s thoughts on modeling. Understand Self-efficacy, self-concept, self-esteem, and self - regulation Understand what the text says about punishment and its use in reducing bad or inappropriate behavior. Disinhibition effect – what is it? Understand the behaviorist approaches and some of the criticisms about its use. The equipotentiality assumption. What is tabula rasa (“blank slate”) and where does it come from? Understand the difference between classical and operant conditioning along with what might be taught or learned through the use of each. Also know the different parts of each (i.e. NS, US, extinction, generalization etc…). Understand the idea of reciprocal causation. Know the different reinforcement schedules and their effects on behavior. Know the social cognitive theory and how it differs from the behavioral views. Understand the different types of reinforcement and punishment and their effects on behavior.