Chapter 7 LEARNING pp. 291-303 Define learningProvide an example of associate learning you have personally experienced. Why do animals raised in captivity rarely produce self sustaining populations? Define conditioning. Explain the relationship between classical and operant conditioning. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING DefineUnconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned response Explain the process of- and provide an example of Acquisition extinction spontaneous recovery generalization discrimination How does higher order conditioning work? How do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect classical conditioning? (discuss Garcia’s research on taste aversion) How do people’s emotional reactions to one stimulus generalize to other stimuli? Provide an example. How do you distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli? Summarize the biopsychosocial influences on learning. Why does Pavlov’s work remain so important/relevant? Discuss some practical applications of classical conditioning. How have your emotions or behaviors been classically conditioned? p. 304-308 OPERANT CONDITIONING Contrast operant and classical conditioning. State the law of effect. Describe the technique of shaping using successive approximations. Provide an example of how unpleasant behavior can be unintentionally reinforced . Provide an example of: negative reinforcement primary reinforcers conditioned or secondary reinforcers Why do delayed reinforcers have less effect on behavior? p. 308 Provide an explaination and example of Continuous reinforcement Partial reinforcement Fixed ratio schedule Variable ratio schedule Fixed interval schedule Variable ration schedule How does punishment affect behavior? Provide an explanation and example of Positive punishment Negative punishment Identify the four drawbacks of physically punishing children. Explain how cognitive thoughts can play a role in behaviorism. What is the unintended consequence of excessive rewards? Explain Explain the statement: biological constraints predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive. How might operant conditioning principles be applied At school In sports At work At home p. 316 Compare classical and operant conditioning. p. 317 Provide an example of observational behavior and modeling that you have experienced personally. What is the role of mirror neurons in observational learning? Explain Summarize Bandura’s experiment. What is the impact of prosocial modeling and of antisocial modeling?