Unit 2 Learning Objectives

Unit 3 Learning Objectives
What is classical conditioning, and how can it be applied in everyday life?
 Explain and provide examples of classical conditioning, and describe the differences
between an unconditioned, neutral, and conditioned stimulus, and an unconditioned,
conditioned, and conditioned emotional response (pp. 207-211).
 For classical conditioning: describe stimulus generalization, stimulus distinction, extinction,
spontaneous recovery, and higher-order conditioning (pp. 212-213).
What is operant conditioning, and how can it be applied in everyday life?
 Define and provide examples of operant conditioning (pp. 214).
 Describe the contributions of Thorndike and the Law of Effect, and discuss how Skinner
elaborated upon Thorndike’s theory of learning (p. 215).
 Define reinforcement, and distinguish between primary and secondary reinforcers (pp. 216217).
 Discuss and provide examples of how responses are strengthened through positive and
negative reinforcement (p. 217-218)
 Distinguish between negative reinforcement and punishment (pp. 217-218)
 Define the Premack Principle and discuss how it can be applied (p. 218)
 Describe and provide examples of how behaviors are shaped (p. 220)
 Discuss and provide examples of how responses can be weakened through positive and
negative punishment; and identify and describe the negative side effects of punishment (pp.
 Identify and discuss tips for reinforcement and punishment (p.223)
How do we learn according to social-cognitive learning theories?
 Describe insight and latent learning (pp. 226-227).
 Define modeling and describe the four processes involved in learning through observation
(pp. 227-228).
 Discuss Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy (p. 432)
How do our thoughts affect how we explain and judge others?
 Define social psychology (p. 540).
 Define attribution, explain the fundamental attribution error and the self-serving bias, and
state how culture impacts each of these (pp. 541-543).
 Define attitude, and describe its three basic components (pp. 543-544).
 Describe cognitive dissonance theory, the impact of dissonance on attitudes and behavior,
and how culture impacts cognitive dissonance (pp. 544-546).
What feelings are most important in our social interactions?
 Differentiate between a stereotype, prejudice, and discrimination. Describe the four major
sources of prejudice and discrimination (pp. 547-549).
 Describe the three key factors in interpersonal attraction. Discuss cross-cultural and
historical similarities and differences in physical attractiveness (pp. 549-552).
 Describe the three components that distinguish liking from loving in Rubin’s research;
compare romantic and companionate love; and discuss problems associated with romantic
love (pp. 553-555).
How do our actions toward others affect their lives and our own?
 Define conformity, and explain the three factors that contribute to this behavior (pp.556-558).
 Define obedience, and describe how Milgram’s classic studies demonstrated the effect of
authority, responsibility, graduations in requests, and disobedient models on obedience (pp.
 Define roles and describe their effect on the behavior of “prisoners” and “guards” in
Zimbardo’s classic prison study (pp. 562-563).
 Discuss how group polarization and groupthink affect group decision making (pp. 564-565).