Chapter 2: Microscopy

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BIOL 3340
Chapter 2
Microscopy
Fixation
preserves internal and external structures
and fixes them in position
 organisms usually killed and firmly
attached to microscope slide

 heat
fixation – routine use with procaryotes
 preserves
structures
overall morphology but not internal
 chemical
fixation – used with larger, more
delicate organisms
 protects
fine cellular substructure and morphology
Light Microscopy
Dyes and Simple Staining
Dyes



make internal and external structures of cell more
visible by increasing contrast with background
have two common features
divides microorganisms into groups based on
their staining properties


e.g., Gram stain
e.g., acid-fast stain
Gram Staining
Gram Staining
most widely used differential staining
procedure
 divides bacteria into two groups based on
differences in cell wall structure

Acid-fast Staining
Acid Fast Staining:
•particularly useful for staining members
of the genus Mycobacterium
e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis –
causes tuberculosis
e.g., Mycobacterium leprae – causes
leprosy
•high lipid content (mycolic acids) in
cell walls is responsible for their
staining characteristics
Gram-negative Cell Walls and Acid Fast
Fast cell wall in
Chapter 3
Bibliography
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_
method
 https://files.kennesaw.edu/faculty/jhend
rix/bio3340/home.html
 Lecture PowerPoints Prescott’s Principles
of Microbiology-Mc Graw Hill Co.

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