Sept 1814 – With Napoleon in exile delegates come to

Sept 1814 – With Napoleon in exile delegates come to Vienna: The
Congress of Vienna
2 Goals: 1) Restore political balance in Europe
2) Provide a means for settling disputes among great powers;
Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria
Prince Klemens Von Metternich – Austria’s Chief Minister who
serves as host and presides over the congress
He proposes to restore Europe back to pre French-Revolution
stability by:
1) Compensation – paying back other countries for
fighting France
2) Legitimacy – restoring royal power back to preNapoleon rulers
3) Balance of Power – To ensure no country could ever
again dominate Europe
1) France has to give back lands, and pay for the costs of the fighting…
2) Give back royal lands; “Divine Right” = Proper Order
- The absolute monarchies were restored; France, Spain, Portugal,
Naples, Sardinia, and Sicily.
- Buffer zones were established around France; the Dutch
Netherlands, Austria-German Confederation (39 States), and
Forces of Change:
Reactionaries – Opposed to change… wanted the old
ways… No Nationalism!
Liberalism – political philosophy in the 1800s… wanted
democratic reforms (speech, press, religion)
Alliances: Quadruple Alliance – Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia
To maintain the settlements of the Vienna Congress by:
1) Preserving territories established at the V.C.
2) Keep Napoleon and heirs from rule
3) Prevent revolutionary movements (Britain later breaks away
due to their liberal govt.)
Holy Alliance – Russia, Prussia, and Austria
Started by Czar Alexander I to promote “Justice, Christian
Charity, and Peace”
All that were invited joined except Britain and the Pope (Pius
Concert of Europe – The regular meeting of these two alliances to resolve
problems and conflict