The American Revolution

The American Revolution
2003 AP European History Exam (Form B)
Free-Response Question—Part C, Option #2:
Explain why Europe saw no lasting peace in the
period between the Peace of Westphalia in
1648 and the Peace of Paris in 1763.
Impact of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648):
 The ruler of a land would determine the official
religion of that land.
Recognized the independence of the Swiss
France became Europe’s dominant power
Spain and Germany were weakened
Austria and Prussia would rise in power
“Firmly established the competitive nationalism
of the modern world.” (Ch. 12—page 413)
Europe in the mid-18th century:
 “The statesmen of the period generally assumed
that warfare could further national interests. No
forces or powers saw it in their interest to prevent
war or maintain peace.” (Ch. 16-page 532)
 Conflicts were fought between professional
soldiers—rarely impacted civilian populations.
The War of Jenkins’s Ear (1739)
 Britain vs. Spain
 Fought over trading in the West Indies
The War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
 New Prussian King Frederick II (the Great) invaded
Silesia of Austria, shortly after Maria Theresa
became Queen of Austria.
 Austria’s main ally was Great Britain
 Prussia’s main ally was France
The War of Austrian Succession ended in 1748
with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
 Prussia retained Silesia
 Maria Theresa remained Queen of Austria, but
granted Hungary autonomy.
France and Great Britain continued to fight in
North America (The French and Indian War).
The “Diplomatic Revolution” of 1756
 Great Britain and Prussia sign a defensive alliance.
 France and Austria respond with their own
defensive alliance.
The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)
 Begins when Frederick the Great invades Saxony.
 The French-Austrian alliance expanded to include
Sweden and Russia.
The Seven Years’ War (con’t)
Great Britain’s involvment in North America
 William Pitt the Elder
The Treaty of Paris (1763)
 Expansion of the British Empire in North America
 Impact in Spain
 Economic Impact throughout Europe
British problems after the Treaty of Paris—1763
 British solutions
 Colonial responses
American Political Ideas
John Wilkes
European Impact of the American Revolution