The Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna met in 1814 and 1815 to redraw the map of Europe after the Napoleonic era, and to provide some way of preserving the future peace of Europe. The leaders of the great powers( France,Austria, Prussia, England, and Russia) had to restore war torn Europe and at the same time deal with the ideas of the French Revolution Ideas of the Revolution Nationalism and Liberalism A. Nationalism- People wanting independence from a foreign Power or regions like Germany and Italy wanting to unify under 1 government B. Liberalism- Citizens wanting their governments to create constitutions granting them rights and allowing them a voice in government Leaders • The Vienna settlement was the work of the representatives of the four nations that had done the most to defeat Napoleon. Prince Klemens Von Metternich (Austrian Foreign Minister) Francis I, (Emperor of Austria) Lord Castlereagh (English,Foreign Secretary) Duke of Wellington (England) Karl Von Hardenberg ( Prussian Chief Minister) Frederick William III (King of Prussia) Czar Alexander I (Russian Czar) Talleyrand (French Foreign Minister) Principles of Settlement The main principles discussed at the Congress of Vienna were: 1. Legitimacy Returning to power the ruling families deposed by more than two decades of revolutionary warfare. Dynasties restored in Holland, Spain, France 2.Compensation Territorially rewarding those states which had made considerable sacrifices to defeat Napoleon. A. England B. Austria C Russia D. Prussia 3.Balance of Power Meant arranging the map of Europe so that never again could one state upset the international order and cause a general war. 4. Containment- Surround France to make sure it will never be a threat The Metternich System Arrangements to guarantee the enforcement of the status quo as defined by the Vienna settlement now included 2 provisions: The “Holy Alliance” An unpractical attempt to unify Europe, only taken seriously by Alexander I of Russia. Nations rule by Christian principles( honesty, peace justice. etc..) The “Quadruple Alliance” Russia, Prussia, England and Austria provided for concerted action to stop any threat to the peace or balance of power. Stop Revolutions ( 1820, 1830, 1848) The Congress System(The Concert System of Europe) This refers to the policy of the Great Powers to meet to discuss problems such as Revolutions. By discussing the key issues it was hoped that the Great Powers could avoid War with each other. Meetings of the Powers Congress of Vienna (1814-1815), Aix-la-Chappelle (1818), Meeting to discuss the withdrawl of troops from France Carlsbad (1819), Reaction to the Burschenschaft, student uprisings in Germany Congress of Troppau (1820) Discuss intervention in Naples uprisings "Troppau Protocol" is as follows:"States, which have undergone a change of government due to revolution, the result of which threaten other states, ipso facto cease to be members of the European Alliance, and remain excluded from it until their situation gives guarantees for legal order and stability. If, owing to such alterations, immediate danger threatens other states the powers bind themselves, by peaceful means, or if need be, by arms, to bring back the guilty state into the bosom of the Great Alliance." Verona (1822) Discussed Austrian rule of Northern Italy, French intervention in Spain London in 1830, 1832, Discuss establishment of a new government in Greece London 1838-1839.Recognize the neutrality of Belgium The Congress of Berlin in 1878 fully settled the Eastern Question and arguably raised the Concert of Europe to the status of the de facto government of the world.