The Congress of Vienna - Norwell Public Schools

The Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna met in 1814 and 1815 to redraw the map of Europe after the
Napoleonic era, and to provide some way of preserving the future peace of Europe.
The leaders of the great powers( France,Austria, Prussia, England, and Russia) had to
restore war torn Europe and at the same time deal with the ideas of the French Revolution
Ideas of the Revolution
 Nationalism and Liberalism
A. Nationalism- People wanting independence from a foreign Power or regions like
Germany and Italy wanting to unify under 1 government
B. Liberalism- Citizens wanting their governments to create constitutions granting them
rights and allowing them a voice in government
The Vienna settlement was the work of the representatives of the four nations that had
done the most to defeat Napoleon.
 Prince Klemens Von Metternich (Austrian Foreign Minister)
 Francis I, (Emperor of Austria)
 Lord Castlereagh (English,Foreign Secretary)
 Duke of Wellington (England)
 Karl Von Hardenberg ( Prussian Chief Minister)
 Frederick William III (King of Prussia)
 Czar Alexander I (Russian Czar)
 Talleyrand (French Foreign Minister)
Principles of Settlement
The main principles discussed at the Congress of Vienna were:
1. Legitimacy
Returning to power the ruling families deposed by more than two decades of
revolutionary warfare.
Dynasties restored in Holland, Spain, France
Territorially rewarding those states which had made considerable sacrifices to
defeat Napoleon.
A. England
B. Austria
C Russia
D. Prussia
3.Balance of Power
Meant arranging the map of Europe so that never again could one state upset the
international order and cause a general war.
4. Containment- Surround France to make sure it will never be a threat
The Metternich System
Arrangements to guarantee the enforcement of the status quo as defined by the
Vienna settlement now included 2 provisions:
The “Holy Alliance” An unpractical attempt to unify Europe, only taken seriously
by Alexander I of Russia.
Nations rule by Christian principles( honesty, peace justice. etc..)
The “Quadruple Alliance”
Russia, Prussia, England and Austria provided for concerted action to stop any
threat to the peace or balance of power. Stop Revolutions ( 1820, 1830, 1848)
The Congress System(The Concert System of Europe)
This refers to the policy of the Great Powers to meet to discuss problems
such as Revolutions. By discussing the key issues it was hoped that the Great
Powers could avoid War with each other.
Meetings of the Powers
Congress of Vienna (1814-1815),
Aix-la-Chappelle (1818), Meeting to discuss the withdrawl of troops from France
Carlsbad (1819), Reaction to the Burschenschaft, student uprisings in Germany
Congress of Troppau (1820) Discuss intervention in Naples uprisings
"Troppau Protocol" is as follows:"States, which have undergone a change of government due to
revolution, the result of which threaten other states, ipso facto cease to be members of the European
Alliance, and remain excluded from it until their situation gives guarantees for legal order and
stability. If, owing to such alterations, immediate danger threatens other states the powers bind
themselves, by peaceful means, or if need be, by arms, to bring back the guilty state into the bosom
of the Great Alliance."
Verona (1822) Discussed Austrian rule of Northern Italy, French intervention in Spain
London in 1830, 1832, Discuss establishment of a new government in Greece
London 1838-1839.Recognize the neutrality of Belgium
The Congress of Berlin in 1878 fully settled the Eastern Question and arguably raised the Concert of
Europe to the status of the de facto government of the world.