Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 - Mrs. Silverman: Social Studies

Congress of Vienna
Goals of the Congress
• Peace settlement
• Legitimacy: restore
“legal” governments
(hereditary monarchy)
• Compensation: reward nations that
helped to defeat Napoleon
Goals of the Congress
• Balance of
agreed to
keep any one
country from becoming too powerful
• Surround France with strong countries
Quadruple Alliance
• Austria
• Prussia
• Russia
• Great Britain
Prince Clemens
von Metternich
Key Representatives
• Austria: Count Metternich
• Great Britain: Lord
• Prussia: King Frederick
• Russia: Czar Alexander I
• France: Talleyrand
Decisions Made at the
Congress of Vienna
• Empire: ended & French borders returned
to those of 1792 (before the war started)
• Former royal family restored to the throne
(i.e. Louis XVIII became King of France)
Decisions Made at the
Congress of Vienna
• Borders changed to reward countries that
helped to defeat Napoleon, to maintain
the balance of power
& to surround France
with strong states
Land Distribution
• Prussia: given land
along the Rhine, part
of Saxony
• Austria: given back
Northern Italy; also to
oversee the German
Land Distribution
• Russia: given Poland
• Great Britain: given
various islands
(i.e. Malta) & Cape
Colony (southern
tip of Africa)
Land Distribution
• Sweden: given
• Sardinia &
Piedmont joined
• Dutch Netherlands: given the Austrian
Netherlands (Belgium)
Land Distribution
• Napoleon returned
just before the
treaty was
finalized (the 100 Days); after he was
defeated again (Waterloo), France was
forced to pay an indemnity (payment for
war costs)
Post Vienna
• Concert of Europe:
• Countries had
regular meetings
to settle
Post Vienna
• Quadruple Alliance (Britain, Prussia,
Russia, Austria)
• Holy Alliance (Prussia, Russia, Austria)
• Metternich System:
• Defend absolute monarchy
• Stamp out nationalism and liberalism
Post Vienna
• Nationalism:
national pride;
the desire of
groups of
people to have their own country and
independent government based on
Post Vienna
• Liberalism: based on
the ideas of the
Enlightenment & the
moderate French
supported freedoms
of speech, press, religion & trade and
equality before the law
• Liberals in Spain &
Nationalists in Italy
tried to overthrow
the monarchies
• The Concert of Europe intervened and
crushed these rebellions
• BUT…
• In Latin America many countries became
independent from
Spain and Portugal
Napoleon’s Legacy
• Millions of people died in the wars
• BUT Napoleon had spread the
revolutionary ideas of Nationalism and
• Ideas that continue to affect the world
• France has 4 more revolutions in the