Sample 5.3.B.2 Complete

5.3.12.D.2 2011
5.3 Life Science: Life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and
interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and
the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics.
D. Heredity and Reproduction: Organisms reproduce, develop, and have predictable life cycles. Organisms contain genetic
information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during reproduction.
Essential Questions
Enduring Understandings
How is genetic information
passed through
There are predictable patterns of 5.3.12.D.2
inheritance, and the variation that
1. Students assemble a fragment of the DNA nucleotides
exists within a species is related to
cut from different colored paper. By using the mRNA/
its mode of reproduction (sexual
Amino Acid coding chart, students write down a
or asexual).
sequence of Amino Acids, coded by the fragment of the
DNA they have created.
Then students imitate various types of mutations, such
as deletions, insertions, inversions, by removing or
Cumulative Progress
adding DNA nucleotides to the existing DNA fragment.
Students have to decode a new Amino Acid sequence
Predict the potential impact on an
and write it down for their classmates’ analysis. They
organism (no impact, significant
will arrive to conclude that some mutations are neutral,
impact) given a change in a
therefore; have no effect onto the organism, and other
specific DNA code, and provide
mutations led to a very different order of amino acids,
specific real world examples of
and therefore different proteins with very different
conditions caused by mutations.
Content Statements
Inserting, deleting, or
substituting DNA segments
can alter the genetic code.
An altered gene may be
passed on to every cell that
develops from it. The
resulting features may help,
harm, or have little or no
effect on the offspring’s
success in its environment.
Labs, Investigation, and Student Experiences
2. Fruit flies are very well known genetic study model
organism that can be used to study mutagenic effect of
cell phone radiation. Flies can be exposed to the cell
phone or computer onto the Drosophila
development/phenotypes/ rate of reproduction.
3. Students will research effects of radiation on human
5.3.12.D.2 2011
Desired Results
Students will be able to…
1. Explain the cell cycle, how it contributes to reproduction and
maintenance of the cell and/or organism, and explain where
mitosis fits into the cell cycle.
2. Understand the factors that cause cells to reproduce.
3. Be able to describe each phase of mitosis and make a simple
labeled drawing of mitosis.
Indicate that resulting cells contain an identical copy of genetic
information from the parent cell.
4. Explain how the apportioning of cytoplasm to the daughter
cells follows mitosis, a nuclear eve nt.
5. Compare and contrast asexual and sexual types of
reproduction that occur on the cellular and multicellular
organism levels. Understand how asexual reproduction differs
from sexual reproduction. Know the advantages and
disadvantages of each.
6. Explain through the use of models or diagrams, why sexuallyproduced offspring are not identical to their parents.
7. Describe the events that occur in each meiotic phase.
8. Compare mitosis and meiosis; cite similarities and differences
9. Recognize that during the formation of gametes, or sex cells
(meiosis), the number of chromosomes is reduced by one half,
so that when fertilization occurs the diploid number is
10. Recognize random mutation (changes in DNA) and events
that occur during gamete formation and fertilization (i.e.,
crossing over, independent assortment and recombination of
chromosomes) as the sources of heritable variations that give
individuals within a speciessurvival and reproductive advantage
or disadvantage over others in the species.
11. Explain why sex-linked traits are expressed more frequently
mutagenesis (Hiroshima, Bikini Bottom Island,
Chernoble, etc.) and dysfunctions that it might bring
4. Students can research on genetically altered food and, if
possible, provide either samples or images of native
fruit/vegetable and genetically modified
fruits/vegetables. One of the examples would be a pear
of a regular size and a polyploidic large-size pear.
5. Students can grow plant Arabidopsis and expose it to the
UV-light as a source of mutations, and then analyze
how the plant growth and development might be
The most common antibiotic resistant bacteria can be grown on
the agar, and one batch serves as control, and another batch of
bacteria can be exposed to the UV-radiation or any other
mutagenic factor. Students will grow exposed bacteria and count
colonies of bacteria that cannot grow in the presence of
antibiotics, indicating that bacteria underwent a mutation and
cannot grow in the presence of the agent.
5.3.12.D.2 2011
in males.
12. Compare and contrast the processes of growth (cell division)
and development (differentiation).
13. Recognize that any environmental factor that influences gene
expression or alteration in hormonal balance may have an impact
on development.
14. List some of the problems in cell division when control is
15. Recognize that cancer is a result of mutations that affect the
ability of cells to regulate the cell cycle.
16. Describe early embryonic development and distinguish each:
oogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation and organ
17. Describe the structure and function of the human male and
female reproductive systems.
18. Model a random process (e.g., coin toss) that illustrates
which alleles can be passed from parent to offspring.
19. Describe the relationship between DNA, genes,
chromosomes, proteins and the genome.
20. Explain that a gene is a section of DNA that directs the
synthesis of a specific protein associated with a specific trait in
an organism.
21. Use Punnett squares, including dihybrid crosses, and
pedigree charts to determine probabilities and patterns of
inheritance (i.e. dominant/recessive, co-dominance,
autosomal/sex-linkage, multiple-allele inheritance).
22. Analyze a karyotype to determine chromosome numbers and
pairs. Compare and contrast normal and abnormal karyotypes.
23. Explain how sex chromosomes inherited from each parent
determines the gender of the offspring.
5.3.12.D.2 2011
“Designing a Controlled Experiment: Growing tomatoes”
New Jersey is famous for its tomatoes.
One of the most famous varieties of tomatoes is the “Rutgers,” which was introduced in 1934 by Rutgers breeder Lyman
Schermerhorn. It was a top performing tomato for New Jersey’s canning industries, including Campbell’s and Heinz. The Rutgers
tomato was the preferred choice of 75 percent of commercial growers for the rest of the twentieth century, and was used worldwide.
Although it has now been replaced with newer varieties, it is still very popular with home gardeners.
Tomatoes require warm weather to grow well. They are usually grown from May through September. Depending on the weather,
tomatoes may be ripe for picking from July through September.
Most commercial plant growers start tomato seeds growing in heated greenhouses in winter to get an early start on the growing
season. They then either sell the young tomato plants to other commercial growers or home gardeners, or plant them outside in late
spring and grow the tomatoes themselves.
5.3.12.D.2 2011
You are the owner of a plant nursery that intends to grow a large number of Rutgers tomato seedlings this coming winter to sell to
home gardeners in the spring. This fall you are going to conduct an experiment to determine the optimum growth conditions that will
produce the best seedlings. Then you will use these conditions in the winter to grow your tomato seedlings for the coming season.
Like all plants, tomato growth is determined by several factors: light, water, temperature, and soil type.
The following materials are available to you:
Rutgers tomato seeds, small pots, thermometers, meter sticks, sand, loam, four greenhouses with heat/lights/water
You are to design a controlled experiment in which you determine:
1. How much water per day makes the tomatoes grow the best?
2. How many hours of light per day makes the tomatoes grow the best?
3. What temperature makes the tomatoes grow the best?
4. Which soil, sandy or loamy, makes the tomatoes grow the best?
In describing your experiment,
1. Draw a chart depicting the basic design of your experiment.
2. Explain how you will determine what “best” is.
3. Explain how you will determine how each factor affects growth.
4. Use the following biological concepts and terms in your explanation: observation, hypothesis, inference, control group,
experimental group, independent variable, dependent variable.
5.3.12.D.2 2011
Greenhouse Diagram
Top View
Side View
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