Genetic Modification in Food Production

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Genetic modification
By:
Ji Eun Kim
Cecilie Eide
Ola Skoczek
Simon Hagenmaier
Dorottya Papi
Renaat Myny
Sam Chiers
Melodie Haelters
Index
1. Definition
2. History
3. Advantages and disadvantages
4. Examples ( golden rice, sweet corn and
long- lasting tomatoes)
5. European regulations about labelling
6. Concerns
Environmental / Health
7. Ethical problems
1.Definition
What?
The manipulation of a living organism’s genetic
How?
By eliminating, modifying or adding copies of specific genes often
from other organisms through modern molecular biology techniques.
Other names:
Recombinant DNA (rDNA)
Genetic engineering
Gene splicing
2. History
1953:
Structure of DNA deduced (Watson, Crick, Wilkins, Franklin).
1968:
DNA code deciphered
1973:
First recombinant DNA
1990:
First genitically modified food (tomato).
1994:
The first GM food was launched on the American market, it were
tomatoes.
Two years later also GB launched the tomatoes into their
market.
2002:
60 million acres of GM food were cultivated
2003:
70 million acres were cultivated
2005:
90 million acres were cultivated
Conclusion
3.Advantages and disadvantages of GM
food
A. Advantages
 Desired characteristics of food are achieved and in a shorter time.
 Improves nutritional value
 Many people rely on GM food for medicines
 Gene technology is the best solution to the problem of world
hunger
B. Disadvantages
 Unacceptable to some groups to copy genes.
 Interfiere in food chain
 Genetically engineered animals may suffer more health problems
 Allergic reactions
Golden rice
Advantage:
It contains Vitamin-A,
so children in developing
countries won’t become blind
Disadvantage:
Poor countries become
depentent on rich countries
which have the technics for
engineering
Sweet corn
Advantages:
- No longer use of insecticides
- The farmer don’t need to deal
with toxic
Disadvantages:
- Insects can become resistant
to the poison
- Endangered butterflies are in
bigger threat
Long- lasting tomatoes
Advantages:
- GM tomatoes can remain fresh
longer
- GM tomatoes can tolerate a
lengthier transport time
Disadvantage:
- Tomatoes are resistant to
antibiotics
5. European regulations about labelling
Eu law :
labelling if the product has more than 0.9 percent of GM
DNA in the product.
Such as: GMO- soja an GMO- sweet are labelled as GMO products.
Other derivatives don’t have to be mentioned on these product’s label.
(For example sugar, …)
But most producers don’t label their products because they don’t want
to lose their consumers or the label they put on the product is very
small. (see these pictures)
6. Concerns
A. Environmental
o Effect of herbicide tolerant and insect resistant GM crops
o the growth of GM crops
o “Genetic Pollution”
B. Health
o weakened immune system
o Hidden Allergens
o Increased antibiotic resistance
7. Ethical Problems
A. The first one is ethic itself
Christians
GM
unacceptable intervention
B. The second one is the question if it will feed the world
Manipulated food = bigger, better and more crops
This could be a solution for the famine in the poor countries.
But…
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