NAME _______________________________________ DATE ______________________ PERIOD ___________

CUBA 2 STUDY GUIDE The Earth’s Structure:

(P-H Pages # 108-113) 1.

Use the word bank to label the different layers of the Earth. Remember: As the depth beneath the Earth’s

surface increases, the pressure and temperature also increase.

______ ______

Word Bank

o o o o Outer Core Crust Inner Core Mantle ______ ______ 2. Studying earthquake waves have helped scientists determine the ____________________________of the Earth? 3. The Theory of Continental Drift _______________ Wegener was a German meteorologist who proposed the theory of Continental Drift. He hypothesized that all of the Earth’s continents were once joined as a super-continent that he called _______________. Wegener’s evidence was not disputed. He cited fossil evidence which included a fern-like plant called ______________ and freshwater reptiles called Mesosaurus and _______________. Wegener also cited evidence of climate change such as _______________ striations on Africa, and fossils of tropical plants in _______________. There was also evidence cited in the form of landforms such as similar _______________ ranges in South Africa and _______________. There were also similar _______________ fields in_____________and North America. The reason Wegener’s theory was tossed out, was because he was unable to explain how the continents________________.

4. Which stress force (compression, tension, or shearing) causes rock layers of rock to fold?

5. Relative Ages {P-H Pages # 293-297)  The Law of Superposition – This principle simply states that in horizontal sedimentary rock layers the oldest layer is at the bottom. Each higher layer is younger than the layers below it.

Analyze the diagram. Which of the following statements is correct?

A. Rock layer “X” is the youngest and rock layer “Z” is the oldest. B. Rock layers X, Y, and Z are all the same age. C. Rock layer “X” is the oldest and rock layer “Z” is the youngest. 6. Identify plate boundaries A, B. and C as Convergent, Divergent, or Transform. In addition, identify the stress force (compression, tension, or shearing) that causes each. 

Boundary “A”:

Boundary Type: __________________________ Stress Force:_____________________________ 

Boundary “B”:

Boundary Type:__________________________ Stress Force:____________________________ 

Boundary “C”:

Boundary Type:__________________________ Stress Force:____________________________

Convergent, Divergent, and Transform Boundaries:

(P-H Pages # 134-137) o o o o o o o Continental Lithosphere Rising Magma Subducted Oceanic Plate Deep-Ocean Trench Mid-Ocean Ridge Lower Mantle Folded Mountains and Volcanoes 4page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization

____________ ____________ ____________ ___________ __

Landforms at Different Types of Plate Boundaries

7. What type of landform will be formed when two continental plates collide? Give an example.

8. Why does ocean crust sink into the mantle when it collides with a continental crust? Mid-Ocean Ridge Formation and the Age of Oceanic Lithosphere

9. How did scientists discover that rocks farther from the mid-ocean ridge were older than the rocks at the ridge? 10. What process occurs at the mid-ocean ridges? 11. Where is material added to the ocean floor? 12. T or F As oceanic crust moves away from the mod-ocean ridge the rocks become cooler and denser.

Convection Currents in the Earth’s Mantle:

(P-H Pages # 115-117)

“Geologists believe that convection currents in the lower mantle are responsible for moving the Earth’s plates of lithosphere.”

13. What is the primary reason for tectonic plate motion? 14. In a convection current, why does warmer molten rock rise while cooler molten rock sinks?

15. Explain the theory of plate tectonics. 16. Identify each type of fault (normal, reverse, or transform / strike-slip). In addition, identify the stress force (compression, tension, or shearing) causing each and movement along the fault in each case.

*Type of fault: *Stress Force: *Movement along fault: Type of Fault: Stress Force: Movement along Fault: *Type of Fault: *Stress Force: *Movement along Fault: 17. Why do most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries?

18. Why does PA have a low risk of earthquakes? 19. When is more energy released by a fault, when the friction between opposite sides of the fault is high or low? Explain your answer. 20. Where is earthquake risk the highest in the United States? Answer: 21. Anticlines and Synclines: *A syncline looks most like (circle one) a plateau, a hill, a valley or a fault. *An anticline looks most like (circle one) a plateau, a hill, a valley or a fault. 22. The S - P time interval is the amount of time that passes between the arrival of the P wave and the subsequent S wave. This interval will then be used to determine the __________________ the waves have traveled from their origin to the seismograph station.

If the difference in arrival time is 6 minutes, what is the distance to the epicenter?


4200 km.


4300 km.


4600 km.


8800 km.

23. What is a giant wave caused by an earthquake at sea called?

24. What process helped form the Appalachian Mountains? (P-H Pages # 144-151)

Types of Volcanoes {Shield, Composite, and Cinder Cones}: (P-H Pages # 193-195)


6-2 Review and Reinforce Worksheet: “Volcanic Activity”

25. What do small earthquakes near a volcano tell scientists? 26. Why does magma flow upward? 27. Which type of volcanic cone (Shield, Composite, and Cinder Cones) forms as a result of quiet eruptions of lava flows? 28. Which type of volcanic cone (Shield, Composite, and Cinder Cones) forms as a result of explosive eruptions like Mount Vesuvius? 29. A Pyroclastic flow forms from what kind of volcano?

30. Describe the type of magma in an explosive volcano versus a volcano that erupts quietly, without exploding.

31. Why are volcanic mountains (volcanic arc) and island arcs associated with convergent boundaries?

32. Describe how a lava plateau forms. 33. A shield volcano has _______________________slopes forming from layers of ______________________ lava that is ______________________ in silica.

The Hawaiian Islands are a chain of volcanic islands. The youngest of these islands is The Big Island of Hawaii. The island of Hawaii is actually a gigantic:

A. island arc that forms as a result of subduction. B. volcanic island that forms above a mid-ocean ridge. C. shield volcano that forms as a result of a fixed hot spot in the Earth’s mantle. D. composite volcano that forms as a result of subduction. Magma 34. Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources (P-H Pages # 326--338) Because energy can change form, people can use a variety of energy sources to meet their needs. One of the main uses of energy is to produce electricity. Like all resources, energy resources can be classified as either renewable or nonrenewable. Nonrenewable resources form very slowly and cannot be replaced in a human lifetime. As a result, their supply is limited and can be used up. Renewable resources are either unlimited or can be replaced in a human lifetime. Because nonrenewable energy sources will run out one day, many people are looking for ways to increase our use of renewable and non-polluting energy resources. Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy resources that include coal, oil, and natural gas. Most electricity-generating power plants burn fossil fuels to turn turbines to drive generators that convert energy of motion into electricity. Unfortunately, burning fossil fuels adds large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere which leads to the greenhouse effect, or global warming. Renewable resources include, nuclear fission, solar power, geothermal energy, hydroelectric power, Tidal Power, and wind power. Power from Wind Solar Power Geothermal Power Hydroelectric Power

Which of the following statements correctly describes an energy resource?





Solar power is a renewable energy resource that highly pollutes the environment. Power from wind is a totally clean, nonrenewable energy resource. Hydroelectric power is a renewable energy resource that comes from the rise and fall of ocean tides. Geothermal energy is a stable, renewable resource and creates low pollution.