Study Guide Chapter 11 (Chiras) Preserving Biological Diversity 1. What have you learned from previous chapters as to why it is important to preserve biological diversity? 11.1 Signs of a Decline 2. How many different species have existed on the planet since life 1st formed 3.5 billion years ago? 3. How many do we think are alive today? 4. How many of these have we identifies and names? 5. How long has life existed on the planet? How many 1000 year blocks of time is that? 6. List the characteristics of both Natural and Accelerated Extinction. 7. Define Endangered and Threatened Species. 8. How much of the world’s bird species are threatened today? 9. How much of the world’s primate and plant species are threatened? 10. Your Instructor said that amphibians, especially frogs, are an ________ species. 11. What is meant by this? 11.2 Causes of Extinction 12. What are the two major causes of extinction today? 13. What are the other six leading causes of extinction? Be able to discuss all 8 causes. 14. What human activities have led to alteration of habitats? 15. Where do half of the species live? 16. List some of the animals that have become extinct or threatened by commercial harvesting. 17. What is poaching? 18. What is a “Critical Population Size”? What happens if the pop. size falls below this level? 19. What are “Keystone” species? Give 3 examples. 11.3 Why protect Biodiversity? 20. What are the 4 reasons the author gives? Be able to discuss each. 21. What is the 5th reason your instructor gave you? (hint: look at # 1 above) 11.4 How to Save and Protect Endangered Species 22. What kinds of species are most people, laws and resources concerned with? Why should we also be concerned about cockroaches, ants, and spiders as well? 23. What are the 2 short-term (stopgap) measures the author mentions? Be able to discuss these. 24. What long-term measures does he suggest? 25. What are “Buffer Zones”, “Ecological Islands”, and “Wildlife Corridors”? 26. What is an “Extractive Reserve”?