PSYCHOLOGY 314 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

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PSYCHOLOGY 314 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
Spring 2002
NOTE: This test covers the material in Chapters, 1-12, 13, 14, 18-21, 23-26, and 29.
THESE ARE THE MAIN TOPICS TO STUDY:
STIMULI AND STIMULUS CONTROL:
 Generalizations over people, places and times
 Discriminative Stimuli (SD) - what are they? Examples.
 Antecedents of Behavior - be familiar with this concept and how it works
TOKEN ECONOMIES:
 Selecting backup reinforcers in your store
 Selecting token types
 How do you use the different approaches to the intervention such as FR, VR?
PUNISHMENT:
 Types of punishers: physical, verbal, removal from situation, response costs, etc.
 Punishment effectiveness compared to other techniques
REINFORCEMENT:
 Positive reinforcement, types of reinforcers (primary, secondary, generalized)
 Escape and avoidance (negative reinforcement) focus on HOW IT DIFFERS
FROM PUNISHMENT
EXTINCTION:
 What is it?
 What factors affect its success or failure: schedule of reinforcement, amount of
reinforcement, length of reinforcement, number of times extinction used before,
combining it with positive reinforcement.
 Spontaneous recovery
 Extinction burst
BUILDING BEHAVIOR:
 Chaining versus shaping
 How schedules of reinforcement affect changes in behavior.
MAINTAINING BEHAVIOR:
 Training to generality
 Gradual fading, delay of reinforcement, generalization
FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS:
 Behavioral excess vs. behavioral deficiencies
 Antecedents and contingencies
 The ABC's
INTERVENTION:
 Types of design (AB, ABA, AB1B2, etc.)
 How do you decide which to use?
 What do you do if it is not working?
 What is a baseline? Why is it important?
SELF-CONTROL:
 Self-monitoring of covert behaviors
 Self-reinforcement and punishment
 Alternative responses
 Bibliotherapy
COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION:
 Systematic Desensitization - why does it work?
 Pairing relaxation and exposure
 Virtual reality
 Fear Hierarchy - why is it needed?
 SUDS -what are they?
 Deep muscle relaxation
 Cognitive techniques
 Imagery
 Self-talk
 Flooding
 Covert conditioning
 Ellis' Rational Emotive Therapy
 Beck's Cognitive Therapy
 Thought Stopping
 Problem Solving techniques
 Comparative data with Behavioral techniques alone, with cognitive components
and cognitive alone
ETHICAL ISSUES:
 Social context - why is it important?
 Individual freedom
 Least Restrictive Alternative
 APA guidelines (Psychologists)
 Human Subject Committees - what are their functions?
 Professional responsibilities
 Concern for welfare
 Informed Consent
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