Intro to chemistry notes

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Intro to chemistry notes

What is Chemistry?

Chemistry is the study of the ____composition______________ and _______properties___________ of ____matter_________ and the _______changes___________ it undergoes.

What’s Matter?

Matter is anything that has _______mass__________ and takes up ______space________. Mass is the amount of _____matter_________ that a substance possesses. Weight is the effect of ___gravity__________ on that mass.

Mass vs. Weight

Say you weigh ___150_______ pounds on Earth and you travel to the moon. You will only weigh __25______ pounds on the moon, because the moon has _1/6______ the ___gravity_________. Your ____weight_________ changes, but you still have the same _____mass__________ and take up the same amount of _____space__________.

Types of Matter

Matter is made of either __________pure substances___________ or _____mixtures__________. A pure substance is made of only ____one______ type of particle. A mixture is made of ___two ______ or ____more__________ types of particles.

Pure Substances

A pure substance can be _____subdivided_____________ into smaller and smaller particles, but every piece still has the same ______properties_____________ as the whole. A pure substance that is made of only one type of __atom___________ is called an ______element_________.

Atoms & Elements

Atoms are considered the ____building____________ blocks of all _____matter_________, and cannot be ___created____________ or _________destroyed_______. There are approximately _____109_____ different types of atoms, each with its own unique _____composition___________. If two or more atoms are _______joined__________ together, this substance is called a _____compound_______________.

element compound

Compounds

Compounds are made by forming chemical ___bonds________ between ____atoms______. The smallest naturally-occurring unit of a ____compound____________ is called a ________molecule_________. If substances are combined but they do __not_________ form chemical ____bonds__________, the substance is called a ______mixture__________.

Mixtures

A mixture that has the same _____composition_____________ throughout the substance is called a _______homogeneous________________ mixture. Examples of homogeneous mixtures:

Salt water Vanilla pudding Air Mayonnaise

A mixture that does not have the same _____composition____________ throughout the substance is called a _______heterogeneous___________ mixture. Examples of heterogeneous mixtures:

Rocky Road ice cream Mixed nuts soil Fruit salad

Flowchart of Matter

Matter

Pure Substances Mixtures Elements

Compound

Hetero- geneous Homo- geneous

Properties of Matter

____Physical_____________ properties are those characteristics that can be ____observed___________ using our senses without changing the ____identity______ of the substance. Common physical properties include:

color density Boiling point odor Melting point Physical state

____Chemical________ properties describe a substance’s ability to undergo ____changes_______ in ____identity______. Examples: ____Iron________ reacts with _____air______ and ____water_______ to form ______rust_____ ____Flour___________, ___egg_______ and _____sugar_________ become _____cake________ in the presence of ______heat_____.

Changes in Matter

The changes that matter undergoes can be classified as either _____physical_______ or ____chemical________ changes. Physical changes alter the _____physical_________ properties of the substance, but not its basic _______composition________________. *** A physical change: changes what you ___look______ like, but not ___who______ you ____are_______.*** A chemical change alters the ____composition__________ and _________structure______ of a substance. The ____products_______ of a chemical change have ____different_______ properties! Chemical changes are always accompanied by changes in ___energy____________. *** A chemical change: changes ____everything___________ about you!***

Signs of a Chemical change

 Change in _____color________ or _____odor________  Formation of a _____gas_____   Formation of a ___precipitate__________ (solid) Change in ______light_______ or ____heat_______

Qualitative vs. Quantitative

Qualitative deals with the ___qualities________ of a substance. **These can be ___observed______ without regard for the ____amount________ of the substance. Examples: ____color_________, ____odor_______, _____state of matter_______ Quantitative analysis deals with ____measuring__________ the substance. Examples: _____mass_______, _____volume__________, _____temperature_______ THINK! Quantitative = _____QUANTITY____________!

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