Chapter 1: The Tools of History pp

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Chapter 1: The Tools of History

Lesson 1: “The World’s Geography” pp.8-13

Key Terms & People:

1.

geography- n. the study of Earth and its people

2.

continent

3.

landform

4.

climate

5.

vegetation

I Geography

A. Study of Earth & how people live on Earth

1.

7 Continents on moving plates a.

Plate movement slow b.

Reshapes Earth c. Movements form landforms & cause earthquakes

2.

Water- ¾ of Earth a.

4 major oceans i.

Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic b.

Rivers & lakes

II Five Themes of Geography

A. Location

1. Where it is exactly or by comparison

B. Place

1. Physical or human characteristics

C. Region a. Language, religion, politics, …

1. How places are similar and different a. Compares characteristics of regions

D. Movement

1. How people, goods, and ideas travel

E. Human-Environment Interaction

1. People use, change, and adapt to environment

Ch. 1 Lesson 2: “How Maps Help Us Study History” pp. 14-25

Key Terms & People:

1.

longitude

2.

latitude

3.

hemisphere

4.

political map

5.

physical map

6.

thematic map

I Geographer’s tools

A. Globe

1. Gives true shape, location, & size of Earth’s landforms & water

B. Map

1. Flat representation of Earth

2. Parts of a map on pg. 16 of textbook

3. Projections show curved surfaces on flat map a. Mercator, Robinson, & Homolosine Projections

C. Hemisphere

1. Earth divided equally in ½ by equator or prime meridian

D. Geographic Grid

1. Grid finds where latitude & longitude lines cross a. Absolute location or an exact location on Earth i. Coordinates measured in degrees

II Maps for Different Purposes

A. Political Map

1. Countries, states, cities, provinces, etc…

2. Population information, political boundaries etc …

B. Physical Map

1. Landforms & bodies of water

2. Often shows elevations

C. Political & Physical Features

1. Often shown together on 1 map a. Understand a region

D. Thematic Map

1. Shows any type of information a. Organized by theme

III How Maps Change

A.

Earliest known maps

1. Clay tablets from Babylonians

B.

Ancient Greeks advanced maps

1. Ptolemy wrote detailed map-making instructions a. Geogrophy

C. Maps from the Middle Ages

1. Arabic & Chinese maps accurate

2. Europeans filled empty spaces with pictures or warnings

D. Modern maps

1. Many use GPS for accuracy

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