Hormone Names Release Origin Target Tissue(s) Effect What is being controlled Antagonistic/ Synergistic/ Neither Animal or Plant Hormones Oxytocin –Posterior Pituitary Oxytocin –Uterus & Breast Muscle Oxytocin – Muscle contraction to expel the baby & expel milk in the breast Birth and Breast Feeding Synergistic – These two hormones work together at birth Animal Prolactin –Anterior Pituitary Prolactin – Mammary glands of the breast Prolactin – stimulate milk production ADH –Posterior Pituitary ADH & ANFDistal Tubule & Collecting Duct of nephrons in the kidney Osmoregulation – water control Antagonistic – They work against each other to control water levels Animal Metabolism and Blood calcium levels Antagonistic on blood Calcium levels Animal Not related Animal Oxytocin & Prolactin (PRL) Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) & Atrial Nutriuretic Factor (ANF) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) & Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Human Growth Hormone (HGH) & Erythropoietin (EPO) ANF – Right atrium of the heart TSH – Anterior Pituitary TSH – Thyroid gland PTH - bones PTH – Thyroid gland HGH – Anterior Pituitary HGH – liver and muscle tissue EPO - kidneys EPO- bone marrow ADH – reduces urine production by reabsorbing the water because the body is dehydrated. ANF – increases urine production by causing less water reabsorption because the blood pressure is too high due to the extra water TSH – helps control metabolism rates using T3 and T4 hormones & calcium levels using Calcitonin – lowers Ca levels by making bone cells take it up by building bone T3 – active form – increases cellular respiration T4 – inactive form – movement in the blood to the cells. PTH – raises blood Ca levels by causing bone cells to break down bone HGH – makes muscle cells grow and divide & causes the liver to release Insulin Growth Factors (IGF) which makes bone and cartilage grow to support greater muscle mass. EPO – stimulates red blood cell production to increase oxygen transportation levels. HGH – bodily growth EPO – Oxygen levels in the blood FSH & LH – Anterior Pituitary Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) & Luteinizing Hormone (LH) FSH & LH – Ovaries of females or Testies of males FSH – stimulates follicles to begin to mature in the ovaries & causes estrogen to be released to the uterus to begin endometrial proliferation. In males- stimulate sperm production and release of testosterone. Testosterone and Estrogen both stimulate sexual maturation. Reproductive Cycles and sexual maturation Synergistic – help control reproductive cycles Animal MSH – Tanning response to Avoid UV damage from the sun Not related Animal Blood glucose levels associated with eating Antagonistic to control blood glucose levels Animal Energy production in stressful times (A.K.A. Fight-or-flight mechanism) Synergistic to control energy production Animal LH – stimulates a mature follicle to be released (ovulation) from the ovary & release of progesterone to stimulate endometrial cells to produce large quantities of sugar for nutritional need of possible implant by fertilized zygote (blastula stage) Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) & Melatonin Insulin & Glucagon MSH – Anterior Pituitary Melatonin – Pineal Gland of the brain Melatonin – Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN) of the brain stem Insulin – Beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the Pancreas Insulin – Liver and body cells Glucagon – Alpha cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the Pancreas Epinephrine – Medulla of Adrenal gland & neurons Epinephrine & Norepinephrine MSH – skin cells Norepinephrine – Medulla of Adrenal Gland & neurons Glucagon – Liver and body cells Muscle cells and Liver MSH – Stimulates skin cells to begin producing melanin protein pigment to try and absorb harmful UV radiation. (Tanning response) Melatonin – Stimulates sleep Insulin – stimulates cells to take up excess sugar in the blood to lower blood sugar levels & helps raise cellular respiration rates. Melatonin -Sleep and awareness cycles Glucagon – raises blood sugar levels by causing the liver to break down glycogen to glucose and put it in the blood. Both increase: cellular respiration rates, conversion of glycogen, lipids, and proteins to energy, breathing and oxygen uptake, increase blood pressure ReninAngiotensinogenAldosterone System (RAAS) Auxin (IAA) & Cytokinins Renin – afferent arteriole of the glomerulus Angiotensin – blood Renin – blood Angiotensin – arterioles & Adrenal gland Aldosterone – Adrenal gland Aldosterone – Distal tubules & collecting ducts of nephons in the kidneys IAA – Apical meristem of shoots IAA – Stems, Trunk, and roots Cytokinins – Apical meristem of roots Cytokinins – Stems and Trunk Renin – Activates the blood enzyme Angiotensinogen to become angiotensin Angiotensin – causes the adrenal gland to release Aldosterone & make the arterioles constrict to reduce blood flow Aldosterone – causes water reabsorption within the distil tubule and collecting duct to increase blood volume. IAA – Causes Apical Dominance in shoots, lateral root growth, phototropism, cell elongation, and fruit development from an ovary of a flower The RAAS system is an emergency mechanism of the body to rapidly increase blood volume in an attempt to keep blood pressure up, and avoid heart failure, because there is a wound causing large amounts of blood loss. Synergistic – as the all work together to increase blood volume Animal Growth and development of plants and fruit Antagonistic – to help ensure proper plant growth tall and wide Plant Growth and development in plants and fruit Not related Plant Cytokinins – Apical dominance in roots, lateral stem elongation, cell differentiation, slowing aging Gibberellins – Seeds Ethylene Gas – seedlings and fruit Gibberellins & Ethylene Gas Gibberellins – Fruit & Seedling Ethylene Gas – fruit and apical meristem of the seedling shoot Gibberellins – breaking seed dormancy in the spring, seedling growth (bolting), fruit size growth (promotes gigantic fruit) Ethylene Gas – Fruit maturation, Triple response in seedlings to grow around barriers while in the ground, apoptosis in xylem and leaves.