SECRETES: Releasing or Inhibiting hormones that affect anterior pituitary
Growth hormone: causes growth i.
Increased fat breakdown and protein synthesis, increases blood glucose 1.
Oversecretion: gigantism (child) or acromegaly (adults) Undersecretion: Pituitary dwarfism Prolactin: Causes lactation in females; effect in males not understood (low levels may reduce desire to cry) TSH: Causes thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone ACTH: Causes adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol MSH: Causes melanocytes to increase production of pigmentation LH: Causes ovulation g.
FSH: Causes maturation of spermatocytes and oocytes POSTERIOR PITUITARY (neurohypophysis) a.
Oxytocin: Causes childbirth contractions ADH: Increases blood volume (raises blood pressure) by causing kidneys to reabsorb water (no salt involved) i.
Undersecretion: Diabetes insipidus
Thyroid hormone (hormonal mechanism): Increases metabolism in all cells. Iodine is needed for thyroxin (precursor to thyroid hormone) i.
Undersecretion: Hypothyroidism ii.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (autoimmune) Oversecretion: Hyperthyroidism 1.
Graves’ disease(autoimmune) b.
Calcitonin: Lowers blood calcium
Parathyroid hormone: Increases calcium reabsorption from bone to raise blood calcium (humoral mechanism) THYMUS: stimulated maturation of T-cells (white blood cells)
ADRENAL GLAND a.
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine: speeds up heart rate (neuronal mach) CORTEX (the major source of steroid hormones in the body) i.
Aldosterone: Raises blood pressure by causing kidneys to reabsorb salt, and ii.
water follows Cortisol: Anti-inflammation, anti-stress (helps the body cope with stress. It can iii.
be converted to prednisone, which suppresses immune system 1.
Increased fat and protein breakdown, increases blood glucose a.
Oversecretion: Cushing’s Disease or Syndrome i.
Round moon face, buffalo hump, high blood sugar, high b.
blood pressure, masculinization in females Under secretion: Addison’s disease c.
Low blood pressure and low glucose, hyperpigmentation Under-secretion of cortisol in fetus i.
CAH (lack of enzymes to make cortisol) Sex hormones for opposite sex: males make estrogen, females make testosterone here.
Insulin: lowers blood glucose b.
Undersecretion: Diabetes mellitus Glucagon: raises blood glucose by glycogenolysis (breaking down glycogen into glucose) and by gluconeogenesis (making new glucose from amino acids and fatty acids) OVARIES (stores enough of its hormones to last several months) a.
Progesterone: Causes uterus lining to thicken Estrogen: Causes oocytes to develop; causes female 2° sex characteristics
Testosterone: Causes male 2° sex characteristics
Melatonin: influences sleep cycles b.
Pineal mineral deposits (“sand”) is seen on x-rays and helps radiologists get oriented in the brain