Carboxylic Acid Derivatives note guide

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Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Esters:
Esters are ____________________________________________________ that are formed from
the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an ___________________.
General Reaction:
H+, heat
Example:
Ethanoic acid
+ ethanol 
+ water
Properties of Esters:
•
Mildly _______________
•
Have pleasant _______________________________
•
Found in _____________________________________________________________
•
Boil at approximately the same temperature as ____________________________________
of similar molecular weights
•
_____________________________ ones are somewhat soluble in water
Naming Esters:
•
Use the _____________________ portion of the ________________________ as the first
name.
•
Remove the __________________________________ ending of the carboxylic acid and
replace it with ______________________.
•
The same naming rules apply if the _______________________________________ of the
carboxylic acid is used.
Examples:
YOU TRY THESE!
Esterification Reactions (making esters):
1) Ethanoic acid + ethanol
2) Butanoic acid + methanol
3) How would you make ethyl propanoate from only alcohols???
•
Fats and oils are ____________ of the alcohol _________________
•
Carboxylic acid + alcohol
ester + water
O
H2C
3 CH3(CH2)14COOH
+
H2C
OH
HC
OH
C(CH2)14CH3
O
HC
3 Palmitic acid
H2C
O
O
O
OH
Glycerol
C(CH2)14CH3
H2C
O
C(CH2)14CH3
Triglyceride
Tripalmitoylglyceride
Formation of Soap (__________________________________________________):
•
When ______________ are hydrolyzed by ______________________________________,
the products are _____________.
•
____________ -catalyzed hydrolysis of esters
•
General Reaction:
Ester + water
OH
C.A. salt + alcohol
•
__________ is a salt of long-chain carboxylic acids
•
Lower molecular weight salts (<12 carbons) have _______ water _____________ and
large ______________
•
__________ salts are more water soluble than _________ salts
•
Saponification Reaction:
•
Ester + water
•
Ex: methyl ethanoate + water
base
C.A. salt + alcohol
(AKA: ___________________)
Acid Chlorides:
IUPAC name - Replace the ____________ ending of the IUPAC name with _____________
Common name – Replace the ___________ ending of the common name with _____________
Examples:
Properties of Acid Chlorides:
•
________________________, _______________________________ chemicals
•
Slightly ____________________________
•
Boil at approximately the same temperature as _____________________________________
of similar molecular weights
•
React violently with _____________
Formation of Acid Chloride:
Example:
Ethanoic acid

Ethanoyl chloride
Hydrolysis of Acid Chloride:
Example:
Ethanoyl chloride 
Ethanoic acid
Acid Anhydride:
•
An acid anhydride is _________carboxylic acids with a _____________ molecule removed.
•
“Anhydride” means ________________________________________________.
Formation of Acid Anhydride:
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