Cells Objectives Cells (pp. 84-146) Define cell, organelle, and inclusion. Identify on a cell model or diagram the three major cell regions (nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane). List the structures of the nucleus and explain the function of chromatin and nucleoli. Identify on a cell model or describe the organelles and discuss the major function of each. Define selective permeability, diffusion (including dialysis and osmosis), active transport, passive transport, solute pumping, exocytosis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic. Describe the structure of the plasma membrane, and explain how the various transport processes account for the directional movements of specific substances across the plasma membrane. Describe briefly the process of DNA replication and of mitosis. Explain the importance of mitotic cell division. In relation to protein synthesis, describe the roles of DNA and of the three varieties of RNA. Define neoplasm, and distinguish between benign and malignant neoplasms. Compare and contrast anabolism and catabolism. Describe how enzymes control metabolic reactions. Explain how the reactions of cellular respiration release chemical energy. Describe how genetic information can be altered. Explain how a mutation may or may not affect an organism.