Important topics to review for the final exam

A list of topics and subtopics to study for CHEM 231 final exam
The most important topics; those which are emphasized or are vital for subsequent
understanding are marked *.
Exam 1 Topics
Compounds, elements, mixtures (heterogeneous & homogeneous)
Names and symbols of elements*
Unit conversions; compound units*
Density problems
Atomic structure*
Electrons, protons, neutrons
Average atomic weights
Classic experiments: Rutherford, Millikan, etc.
Periodic table*
Names of groups
Other divisions: metals, main groups, transition elements
Ions: names and charges
Monatomic ions from periodic table
Polyatomic ions
Names and formulas*
Ionic compounds
Simple common covalent compounds and diatomic elements
Simple organic compounds (including structures)
Exam 2 Topics
Chemical equations*
Reactant, product, phase notation
Empirical formulas; mass percents of elements
Formula weights*
Avogadro number and molar quantities
Relating reaction masses
Limiting reactants
Solutions; solvents and solutes
Electrolytes: ions in aqueous solution*
Reaction types*
Oxidation-reduction; acid-base
Decomposition; combination
Solution reactions*
Double displacement type: Precipitation and acid-base (hydroxides, carbonates)*
Single displacement: Oxidation of metals by metal ions or acids*
Net ionic equations; spectator ions
Other reactions: Combustion, e.g.
Solution concentrations*
Units: Percent, molarity
Making solutions & diluting
Solution stoichiometry
Exam 3 Topics
1st law of Thermodynamics
Work, heat, energy, enthalpy
Energy units: J, cal, eV, kJ/mole
Heat & temperature*
Heat capacity, specific heat & molar heat capacity
Reaction enthalpies*
Hess’s Law
Heat of formation & combustion
Using tabulated thermodynamic data
Thermochemical equations & stoichiometry
Energy conversions
Bond energies
Electromagnetic spectrum*
Wavelength, frequency, photon energy
Regions of spectrum & processes
Matter waves; uncertainty principle
Energy levels and wave functions for atoms and molecules*
Photon absorption and emission; calculate wavelengths
Electron states of hydrogen: shells, subshells, orbitals & quantum numbers
Electron structure of many-electron atoms*
Electron spin and Pauli principle
Electron configurations; relation to periodic table
Exam 4 Topics
Energies of electrons in atoms
Inner shell & valence electrons
Effective nuclear charge; shielding
Periodic trends of atomic properties
Size of atoms
Ionization energy & electron affinity
Metallic nature of elements
Lattice energies & Born-Haber cycles
Lewis electron dot structures*
Atoms and atomic ions
Simple molecules; counting valence electrons
Octet rule
Formal charges & oxidation numbers
Violations of octet rule
Resonance structures
Oxidation of metals (by acid, water, other metal ions, halogens)
Metal oxides as bases
Nonmetal oxides as acids
Activities of metals
Unit 5 Topics
Predicting geometry from Lewis structures*
Electron domains
Molecular geometries
Bond angles
Dipole moments
Double and triple bonds
Sigma and pi bonds
Delocalized pi orbitals
Gas laws*
Boyle’s, Charles’ , Avogadro’s Laws
Ideal gas law
Stoichiometry involving gases*
Kinetic theory of gases
Assumptions of the model
Explanations of gas behavior
Emphasized throughout
Estimating numerical answers*
Language of chemistry: translating words into chemical equations*
Unit analysis*