Figure S1
Frequency of daily precipitation during 7-13 August, 2004 derived from (black) TRMM 3B42
dataset [Huffman et al., 2007], and (red) 28-km-mesh, (green) 14-km-mesh, and (blue) 7-km-mesh
NICAM simulations initialized at 00UTC 7 August. All data is regrided to common 1.25×1.25 grid
boxes before analyses.
Huffman, G.J., R.F. Adler, D.T. Bolvin, G. Gu, E.J. Nelkin, K.P. Bowman, Y. Hong, E.F. Stocker,
D.B. Wolff, 2007: The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis: Quasi-Global, Multi-Year,
Combined-Sensor Precipitation Estimates at Fine Scale. J. Hydrometeor., 8:38-55.
Figure S2
Hovmöller diagrams of observed (black contour in each panel) and simulated (color) OLR averaged
between 120°E and 150°E. Observed OLR (200 W m−2) is derived from NOAA interpolated OLR.
The abscissa shows days from 1 August onwards. The initial date of the simulation (mmdd) is shown
in the upper left corner of each panel.
Figure S3
Observed (a) and ensemble mean of 10-day mean OLR (green contour) and zonal wind at 850 hPa
(color shading) averaged during 21-30 August 2004. NICAM simulations are initialized from 12
hrough 18 August using 14 km (b), 28 km (c), 56 km (d), 110 km (e), and 220km (f) horizontal
resolutions without convective parameterization. Black cross in (a) indicate the location of Songda’s
genesis. OLR values less than 200 W m-2 are shown with contour intervals of 20 W m-2. Broken lines
depict the shear line.