Rise of the Social Sciences 6th

Rise of the Social Sciences (1800’s)
Social Sciences --- branches of knowledge that scientifically study people as
members of society
o Topics --- economics, history, political institutions, and human
o Having these topics treated like science was new to the 1800’s
 Social Science helps us understand why humans act the way they do
o Before the 1800’s, everybody studied things like biology, chemistry,
 New views of history were found when people studied documents, diaries
and letters
o Example --- Darwins theory of evolution
Archaeology, Anthropology, and Sociology
 Archaeology --- the study of human culture through the artifacts people
leave behind
o Archaeologists studied prehistoric cave paintings. They also found
out how old earth and humans are.
 Anthropology --- the study of different societies both past and present
o Anthropologists explored the ways humans and attitude relate to
each other.
 Sociology --- the study of relationships in society
o Auguste Comte --- founder of sociology; argued that society, like
nature, operated by certain laws, so scientists should use facts-not
personnel interpretations
 Psychology --- studies the mind and human behavior
 Psychoanalysis --- the study of people in an unconscious state
o This helped treat people of mental illness
 it worked because while being unconscious, people remember
things they otherwise didn’t remember
 Example: dreams, hypnosis
 Psychiatry --- the study and treatment of mental illness
People in Social Sciences
E.B. Taylor
A British anthropologist
Used the German word Kultur to explain beliefs and behaviors
a society shares
Wrote the book Primitive Culture where he talked about how
religion has evolved in society
James George Frazer
Also a British anthropologist
His main study was the customs of different societies
He wrote a book that talks about anthropology, called The
Golden Bough
Auguste Comte
French philosopher and sociologist
One of the main founders of sociology; said that society, like
nature, follows certain laws
He argued that people should only follow facts and science and
not personal interpretations
Herbert Spencer
Sociologist that used biological sciences to explain things
Accepted and studied Darwin’s survival of the fittest and
evolution used it as a basis for the study of human communities
His Theory became known as Social Darwinism
Ivan Pavlov
o Discovered conditioned reflex which means there are things species
don’t have to be taught
 Example: Dog barking
o He concluded that human actions are responses to outside stimuli
and can be changed by training
 Sigmund Frued
o Introduced idea of unconscious as a determining factor in human
 He founded modern psychiatry which is the study and
treatment of mental illness
1. Define social sciences in your own words --2. Who discovered the conditioned reflex?
A. James George Frazer
B. Auguste Comte
C. Ian Pavlov
D. E.B. Taylor
3. True/False
Social sciences developed during the 1800’s?
4. Freud founded modern __________________, the study and treatment
of mental illness.