Rise of the Social Sciences (1800’s) Social Sciences --- branches of knowledge that scientifically study people as members of society o Topics --- economics, history, political institutions, and human relations o Having these topics treated like science was new to the 1800’s Social Science helps us understand why humans act the way they do o Before the 1800’s, everybody studied things like biology, chemistry, etc… New views of history were found when people studied documents, diaries and letters o Example --- Darwins theory of evolution Archaeology, Anthropology, and Sociology Archaeology --- the study of human culture through the artifacts people leave behind o Archaeologists studied prehistoric cave paintings. They also found out how old earth and humans are. Anthropology --- the study of different societies both past and present o Anthropologists explored the ways humans and attitude relate to each other. Sociology --- the study of relationships in society o Auguste Comte --- founder of sociology; argued that society, like nature, operated by certain laws, so scientists should use facts-not personnel interpretations Psychology --- studies the mind and human behavior Psychoanalysis --- the study of people in an unconscious state o This helped treat people of mental illness it worked because while being unconscious, people remember things they otherwise didn’t remember Example: dreams, hypnosis Psychiatry --- the study and treatment of mental illness People in Social Sciences • E.B. Taylor o A British anthropologist o Used the German word Kultur to explain beliefs and behaviors a society shares o Wrote the book Primitive Culture where he talked about how religion has evolved in society • James George Frazer o Also a British anthropologist o His main study was the customs of different societies o He wrote a book that talks about anthropology, called The Golden Bough • Auguste Comte o French philosopher and sociologist o One of the main founders of sociology; said that society, like nature, follows certain laws o He argued that people should only follow facts and science and not personal interpretations • Herbert Spencer o Sociologist that used biological sciences to explain things o Accepted and studied Darwin’s survival of the fittest and evolution used it as a basis for the study of human communities o His Theory became known as Social Darwinism • Ivan Pavlov o Discovered conditioned reflex which means there are things species don’t have to be taught Example: Dog barking o He concluded that human actions are responses to outside stimuli and can be changed by training Sigmund Frued o Introduced idea of unconscious as a determining factor in human behavior He founded modern psychiatry which is the study and treatment of mental illness Quiz 1. Define social sciences in your own words --2. Who discovered the conditioned reflex? A. James George Frazer B. Auguste Comte C. Ian Pavlov D. E.B. Taylor 3. True/False Social sciences developed during the 1800’s? 4. Freud founded modern __________________, the study and treatment of mental illness.