Change Management Presentation

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Change Management
What is it?
What are the barriers to change?
How can you help?
Change strategy
People are different
“You’ll never
get me up on
one of those
butterfly
things.”
Why do you think the caterpillar does not want to be a butterfly?
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© J. Sommer
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there are many different responses and answers, including:
 Caterpillars have no need to fly. They
are well-grounded!
 Caterpillars can eat anything green
and find food everywhere.
 Butterflies are a stage beyond
caterpillars.
 Butterflies have to fly to get
anywhere. Caterpillars can crawl and
climb.
 It's easier for butterflies to develop
perspective than caterpillars.
 We can attempt to resist and suffer
the stress and difficulties.
 You have to stop being a caterpillar in
order to become a butterfly.
 Change is not always a conscious
decision. Change will occur, inevitably.
 We can choose to be active
participants in change. Or not, maybe.
 We go through stages of development
and butterflies are one stage closer
to death.
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Risk avoidance is normal.
Change is often actively resisted.
Change is inevitable.
Caterpillars don't like wings.
Caterpillars must hate flying since
they don't try.
There is a need for vision and
perspective -- we're all on a journey.
Caterpillars focus only on eating and
survival.
Butterflies get blown around by the
wind and caterpillars can drag their
feet!
Metamorphosis is an uncontrollable
process with an unclear result.
Metamorphosis is a dark, damp,
confined place, so I'm scared!
and my favorite answer:
I'll NEVER be a butterfly; My
mother was a moth.
Teaching the caterpillar to fly – S. J. Simmerman
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Quick: You work for an organization that is
spending millions of dollars on a very important
new process that will completely change how
you work, and who you work with and require
you to think about your job in a totally new way!
The success of the company depends on you
and your co-workers.
Go knock ’em dead tiger!
- Catherine Rezak “The Alignment Factor”
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“Thoughtable Quotes ”
©
Nestle executive in a 2002 interview with CIO magazine the executive
summarized what the company had learned.
“No major software implementation is really about software. It’s about
change management… When you move to SAP, you are changing the
way people work… You are challenging principles, their beliefs and the
way they have done things for many years”
Jon Madonna, CEO KPMG Marwick in Jumping the Curve
“Nothing stops an organization faster than people who believe that the
way they work yesterday is the best way to work tomorrow. To succeed,
not only do your people have to change the way they act, they’ve got to
change the way they think about the past.”
Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince 1532
“There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct,
or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction
of a new order of things.”
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Quality of the Change Initiative
X
Alignment of People
= Results
Michael Fischer; Kimberly Clark
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Change Management
A planned approach to integrating change which includes formal
processes for assessing the impact of the change on both the
people it affects and the way they do their jobs.
Application of techniques to gain acceptance and understanding
of the change and change behavior to take advantage of the new
functionality.
Change is the interplay among various forces that are involved in
growing something new. Deep change comes only through real
growth – through learning and unlearning.
70% of all change initiatives fail due to failure to address human
component of change. HBR by Michael Beer & Nitin Nohria
True stability results when presumed order and disorder are balanced.
A truly stable system expects the unexpected and is prepared to be disrupted,
wants to be transformed. – Tom Robbins
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Implementation of large scale business transformation initiatives, like
SAP, by nature result in significant and fundamental change...
 How people do their jobs changes
 What the job, work content is may change
 Who people work with and report to may change
 The tools (systems, reports, etc.) of the job and how people interface
with them change
 Implementing the initiative requires additional, unfamiliar work, maybe in
unfamiliar locations
 New skills, behaviors will be required
 Employee assignment
 Controls (over process and information) will change
 How information is provided, accessed, and shared will change
CHANGE MANAGEMENT Helps Determines How People Will React
To These Changes, And Therefore, The Ultimate Success Of The
Transformation of the VISION, KNOWLEDGE, & RESPONSIBILITY
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Phases of Change
Phase
Description
Shock and Surprise
Confrontation with unexpected situations. This can happen ‘by accident’ (e.g. losses in particular
business units) or planned events (e.g. workshops for personal development and team
performance improvement). These situations make people realize that their own patterns of
doing things are not suitable for new conditions any more. Thus, their perceived own
competence decreases.
Denial and Refusal
People activate values as support for their conviction that change is not necessary. Hence, they
believe there is no need for change; their perceived competency increases again.
Rational
Understanding
People realize the need for change. According to this insight, their perceived competence
decreases again. People focus on finding short term solutions, thus they only cure symptoms.
There is no willingness to change own patterns of behavior.
Emotional
Acceptance
This phase, which is also called ‘crisis’ is the most important one. Only if management succeeds
to create a willingness for changing values, beliefs, and behaviors, the organization will be
able to exploit their real potentials. In the worst case, however, change processes will be
stopped or slowed down here.
Exercising and
Learning
The new acceptance of change creates a new willingness for learning. People start to try new
behaviors and processes. They will experience success and failure during this phase. It is the
change managers task to create some early wins (e.g. by starting with easier projects). This
will lead to an increase in peoples perceived own competence.
Realisation.
People gather more information by learning and exercising. This knowledge has a feedback-effect.
People understand which behavior is effective in which situation. This, in turn, opens up their
minds for new experiences. These extended patterns of behavior increase organizational
flexibility. Perceived competency has reached a higher level than prior to change.
Integration
People totally integrate their newly acquired patterns of thinking and acting. The new behaviors
become routine.
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Phases of Change
Oliver Recklies
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Moving beyond the barriers to change
10. Take care of the “me” issues
11. Alter the reward system to
support change
12. Seek opportunities to involve
your people
13. Over-communicate
14. Make sure people have the
know-how needed
15. Track behavior and measure
the results
16. Outrun the resisters
1. Expect resistance
2. Remember the “20-50-30” rule
3. Get resistance out into the
open
4. Choose opening moves
carefully
5. Explain the rationale for
change
6. Provide a clear aiming point
7. Promise problems
8. Beware of bureaucracy
9. Wear your commitment on
your sleeve
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Price Pritchett; “Resistance – Moving beyond the barriers to change” 1996
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J. M. Juran’s Analogy
Juran likens the team to the bee crashing into the
window over and over again until it falls from
exhaustion.
Resistance to a project can be invisible unless they
are sensitized to the existence of a cultural pattern.
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Expect Resistance
Resistance is the common side effect of change.
It has been said people do not resist change, they resist
being changed.
What complicates the picture is that different individuals
and groups react in different ways at the same time to the
same change.
Change triggers the organization’s immune system sort
of like antibodies. Resistance can be valuable by
defending the health of the organization and individuals.
But it can also cause problems. Resistance is a very
reliable barometer to measure the impact of change, but
not a good gauge of how appropriate the change may be.
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Resister
30%
20-50-30 Rule
Change
Friendly
20%
Fence
Sitter
50%
Generally time is best spent trying to woo the fence
sitters, BUT you must manage the Resisters.
Never presume you must have buy-in from everyone
before moving forward. For some, buy-in will only
come later (if at all) after the results are in which
prove the change was both appropriate and
successful.
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Categories of resisters
Understand who are the roadblocks to change
1. Those who call attention to themselves – high profile
in their resistance. Make most noise generally
smallest group.
2. Moderates. Some disguise it to be politically correct.
Normally largest group.
3. Undercover. Resist on the sly, subversive resistance
many time through others. The most dangerous type.
They demonstrate signs of passive resistance with
stronger undertones.
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Spectrum of Possible Behavior Toward Change
—Enthusiasm
—Cooperation
Acceptance —
—Cooperation under pressure
—Acceptance
—Passive resignation
Indifference —
—Indifference
—Apathy; loss of interest in the job
—Doing only what is ordered
Passive Resistance —
—Regressive behavior
—Non-learning
—Protests
—Working to rule
Active Resistance —
—Doing as little as possible
—Slowing down
—Personal withdrawal (increase time off)
—Committing “errors”
—Spoilage
—Deliberate sabotage
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Arnold S. Judson, Changing Behavior in Organizations: Minimizing Resistance to Change©
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Resistance guidelines
Always make it safe and easy for people to open up
Operate from premise that people resist for what they
consider good reasons. Evaluate the legitimacy, understand
the reasons.
Get beyond superficial answers to the true issues (root cause
– Ask the 5 Why’s)
Try to understand their position, most resist for good reasons
Listen to them, they may really be an ally and prevent you
from doing something dumb.
Treating resisters with respect and dignity may alone keep
resistance from escalating.
Discounting it gives them the feeling they must fight.
Disallowing it will drive it underground.
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Choose your opening moves carefully
 Subtle approach - change quietly and gradually
under the radar
Middle of the Road - slow start then accelerate.
Bold & Dramatic to shock the organization and
overcome inertia.
Know your organization and people.
Opening move is crucial.
The way you start says a lot about the way you finish.
Wrong initial messages can cause irreparable harm.
Need to help people pass through the transition phase and
convert initial emotions into positive ones of hope, motivation
and enthusiasm.
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Explain the rationale for change
 Resistance is rooted in lack of understanding
Give Vision, objectivity & perspective
Give them the logic that is driving the change
The change should tie to business, departmental,
personal objectives.
Don’t expect everyone to “get it” if you explain it only
once or twice
“Breaking form for the sake of breaking form is only an
empty gesture unless the context, the stuff inside the form is
intrinsically special and unique.”
- The Republic of Tea
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Provide a clear aiming point
 Well defined and understandable goals
Provide a clear map, a picture of the future that is
clear not fuzzy
Aiming point should be desirable for the business
and people. Needs a good marketing campaign.
Change needs to be purposeful for people to commit
Change should be a bridge to the Vision
“If you don't know where you are going, you might wind up
someplace else.”
- Yogi Berra
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Promise problems – uncomfortable transition
"In the transition from being a caterpillar to becoming a butterfly, for a
time you're nothing more than a yellow, gooey sticky mess."
Resistance spikes when issues arise
During the “sales pitch” of the project
be honest about what is coming
Create a project “Warning Label”
Better chance handling problem
if known ahead of time
Attitude “turn lemons into lemonade”
can do approach to handling problems
Everyone is either part of the problem
or part of the solution – be part of the solution
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Beware of bureaucracy
resisters are not only people
Bureaucracy is politics, systems, processes; anything
that bogs down the organization.
Its primary virtue is to stabilize, providing structure.
It can have a habit of reproducing itself – without
removing out dated bureaucracy.
Encourages doing things the same as always.
Beware of “informal” networks.
“We cannot become what we want to be by remaining what we are.”
- Max DePree
“Things are this way because they got this way and unless things
change, things will continue to remain the same.”
- Scott J. Simmerman
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Change attributes in conflict with bureaucracy
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“And after all, how would we know we were
making any progress if things didn’t go
‘Thump, Thump?’” - Scott J. Simmerman
Ambiguity, Uncertainty
Confusion
“Don’t let the sound of your own wheels
Renegotiation of power
drive you crazy” – The Eagles
Shifting roles and responsibilities
Elimination of Not Invented Here
Think out of the box
Solicit input, feedback
Go fast - decide and move forward
People will often resist change because they are comfortable with how things are,
right now. Goals are set based on the Square Wheels.
By identifying Square Wheels and Round Wheels, we increase discomfort with the
way things are and we make change more likely. Risk comes from not changing. We
need to make the round wheels useful.
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Wear commitment on your sleeve
People will “test the limits” looking to find their own proof of how
serious you are about the change.
Once you have settled on a course of action you must be obvious,
passionate and determined to follow through.
EFFECT (to bring about or execute) not just AFFECT (to influence)
Which is really committed to breakfast?
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Take care of “me” issues
 People want to know how it will affect me
Toughest thing to deal with is not knowing
Lack of adequate communication results in rumors
and increased number of resisters
People instinctively start to resist change when they
can’t draw a bead on what’s about to happen to them
Initial emotions are fear, denial, shock, resentment,
stress, cynicism over latest flavor-of-the-month
program, negative prior experience of similar project,
etc.
“There’s nothing I’m afraid of like scared people”
- Robert Frost
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Team Lessons from Geese V Formation
In the fall when you see geese heading south for the winter flying along in the "V"
formation, it has been learned that as each bird flaps its wings, it creates an uplift for the
bird immediately following. By flying in a "V" formation, the whole flock adds at least 71%
greater flying range than if each bird flew on its own.
Encourage them to learn from the V-team.
- Agree on the goal.
- Work as a team. Don’t create drag.
- Be willing to help others.
- Be willing to get help from others.
- Do all you can with your talents, knowledge and abilities.
- Be willing to lead.
- Be willing to let others lead.
- Honk to encourage each other.
- Stand by those who get sick or wounded along the way.
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Alter reward system to support change
?Do people perceive they will lose in the change process?
?Will work be harder for a time, longer? More work?
?Initially will there be more job stress?
?Does hanging on to old habits make good sense to people?
?Are the compensation criteria aligned to the new or old system?
Give people eye-catching reasons to do things differently.
Pass out “psychological paychecks” (praise, honor,
attention, awards, etc.) to supporters.
Consider if negative reinforcement is needed for
those fighting the change.
Make it visible.
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Seek opportunities to involve people
Change is more likely to be accepted if we don’t think
it is being forced upon us without representation
Look for opportunities to involve people, for them to
have a role
However; “Change by committee” gets clumsy. Don’t
want to set the false expectation that all must agree or
all must have input before the change will occur.
The good news is if they see representative
involvement and are given proper communication,
their concerns are more likely to be addressed
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Spectrum of Participation in the Desired State
Active
Part of Decision
Making Process
—Making and implementing decisions
—Task assignments with accountability
—Formulating proposed plans and solutions to problems
Part of Planning
and Design
—Planning groups
—Task forces
—Analysis of problems and alternatives
—Task forces
—Formally established councils or committees
Input to Planning
and Design
—Group suggestions and recommendations
—Formally established councils or committees
—Informal groups
—Individual suggestions
—Face to face discussions of problems
Consultation Input
—Face to face invitations to voice opinions
—Electronic exchanges
Inclusion
—Attendance at briefings
—Inclusion on distribution lists
Passive
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—Read project communications
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Arnold S. Judson, Changing Behavior in Organizations: Minimizing Resistance to Change©
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Over Communicate
Somebody once said; “The more unpleasant the
message the more effort should go into
communication”
Failure to communicate will fuel the rumor mill.
 Multiple modes of communication
 Multiple types of communication
 Frequent and consistent messages
 Listen, provide a means to have a two-way street
 A direct correlation between quality of communication
and resistance
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Make sure people have the know-how needed
 What do people do most when they don’t know what to do?
 What looks like obstinacy or lack of cooperation on the part of your
people may prove to be a simple lack of know-how.
 Fears of becoming obsolete, unclear expectations, inability to perform
to prior levels, failure.
 They may decide it is best to do nothing as opposed to doing
something wrong.
 May find what they think is short cut and instead harm another part of
the process.
“Tell me and I forget,
Show me and I remember,
Involve me and I learn”.
- Anonymous
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Learning not
Training
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Experiential Learning Process
 Vision, Big picture
 Learner driven, team based
 Build insight
 Allow time for reflection& internalization
 Mistakes are a tool for learning
 Nurture new mental models
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Track behavior and measure results
Major change efforts require monitoring. Things go wrong and
unexpected situations develop. Be flexible, adaptable, responsive.
Some resistance is telling you the game plan has flaws. Other resistance
is a hindrance to the success of the project. You need to differentiate.
Need to track:
Time tables
Deliverables
Uncooperativeness
Attitudes
Destructive Criticism
Drifting off course or regressing back to old ways
Circumventing system in place with “back room” processes.
"It is a bad plan that admits of no modification."
— Publilius Syrus First Century BC
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Outrun the resisters
Resisters rely on a strategy of delay. They hate fast. They hope
slow turns into stop.
Evan after the decision has been made they want to sit down, talk
things over, weigh risks again…again, consider other options,
ruminate over what might possibly go wrong and value
deliberation.
In today’s business slow change doesn’t have a very high success
rate. There are far more failures from going too slowly that from
exceeding some imaginary speed limit.
“It gets late early out there” – Yogi Berra
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How can you help?
Everyone who is part of implementing the
change management process is a Change
Agent (“seed carriers”).
The next slide illustrates the desirable
characteristics for a change agent.
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Change Agents
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The Blue Hat is used to manage the thinking process. It's the control
mechanism that ensures the Six Thinking Hats® guidelines are
observed.
The Green Hat focuses on creativity; the possibilities, alternatives,
and new ideas. It's an opportunity to express new concepts and new
perceptions.
The Red Hat signifies feelings, hunches and intuition. When using
this hat you can express emotions and feelings and share fears,
likes, dislikes, loves, and hates.
The Yellow Hat symbolizes brightness and optimism. Under this hat
you explore the positives and probe for value and benefit
The White Hat calls for information known or needed. "The facts, just
the facts.“
The Black Hat is judgment - the devil's advocate or why something
may not work. Spot the difficulties and dangers; where things might
go wrong. Probably the most powerful and useful of the Hats but a
problem if overused.
A process to engage people in a constructive manner to creatively solve problems
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MANAGING CHANGE
PREPARING for CHANGE
(Awareness & Desire):
P
R
E
S
E
N
T
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Why do we need to change?
What is the present state like?
What is the future state like?
What is going to change?
How will affect me?
What are our risks/problems?
Who are the resistors?
What will be the keys to
success?
IMPLEMENTING CHANGE
(Knowledge & Ability):
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CEMENTING the CHANGES
(Reinforcement):
What is our change process?
How do we involve people?
How do we best internalize
changes?
How do we best use our change
levers?
How do we position change as a
opportunity?
How do we implement new roles,
skills and abilities?
How do we minimize the
negative impact to people and
business?
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Monitor behavior & results
Implement reward system
Have all concerns been surfaced
and addressed?
Are the sponsors champions of
the project?
Is the 2-way communication
system working effectively?
Are the 6 Thikning Hat principles
being used?
Is the learning system effective?
Is the organization ready?
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Effective 2 way communication
Measurement systems
Infrastructure aligned
Reward systems aligned
Organizational structure aligned
Skill of change agents
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CHANGE LEVERS
TRAINING
S
T
A
T
E
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Clear understanding of the need
for change
Quality of leadership
Commitment of Sponsors
Clear vision of future & Strategy
Change Structure
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Vision, Big picture
Learner driver, team based
Build insight
Allow time for reflection&
internalization
Mistakes are a tool for learning
Nurture new mental models
F
U
T
U
R
E
S
T
A
T
E
MAXIMS TO LIVE BY
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Communicate, communicate, communicate
Continuous improvement is key to success
We'll keep trying until we get it right
Invest in Quick Wins & Celebrate successes
Everyone is different, capitalize on it
Copyright
Richard M. DiGeorgio
Modified by
John Sommer
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Think outside the box, experiment
Create ownership and involvement
Walk the talk
Hold people accountable
Utilize 6 Thinking Hats approach
MANAGING
CHANGE
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Communication
Change Management Roles for Software Implementation
Executive Committee
Vision
Rationale
Support
Executive Sponsor
Change Management Teams
Champion
Action Plans
Issue Resolution
Timely Decisions
Positive Reinforcement
Communication
Project
Project Communication
Management
Core Team
Design
Configur
e
Test
Train
Field Team
Integrate the change
Users
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Working the people component
change is about people
We need to understand the people in order to implement an
effective strategy of change management.
The next set of slides focus on understanding personality
types. There are various methods to determine a person’s
personality type. I present one, PCM, in this presentation.
The objective is to increase the awareness of differences and
complexities of people. While it is great to know everyone’s
type in order to best understand how to interact, gaining a
better understanding of yourself will also be of tremendous
benefit.
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"If you want them to listen to what you say, talk their language."
Taibi Kahler, Ph.D.
The Process Communication Model (PCM) provides a reliable and
validated method of identifying and understanding personality
structures, life passages, and communication dynamics. Based on a
scientific award–winning clinical discovery PCM has been researched
through thirty years and experienced by half a million people on five
continents in such applications as sales, business, education, politics,
religion, medicine, parenting, and personal relationships.
Individual personality structure is comprised of six, separate and
mutually exclusive behavior types, called Workaholic, Reactor,
Persister, Rebel, Dreamer, and Promoter. Likened to a six-floored
condominium, personality structure is ordered, indicating the relative
amount of time a person experiences and demonstrates the behaviors
of a given type floor.
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PCM Example
Promoter
Rebel
Dreamer
current
base

Persistor
Workaholic

41
 41
© J. Sommer
2004
PCM Demographics
80
70
60
50
% 40
30
20
10
0
Female
Workaholic

Male
Reactor
Total Pop
Persister

42
Dreamer
Rebel
 42
© J. Sommer
2004
WORKAHOLIC PERSONALITY
 Perception: Thinks first; identifies and categorizes
people and things.
 Character strengths: Logical, responsible and
organized.
 Examples: Mr. Spock, Des Cartes, Jonathan Hart,
HAL, Emily Bronte, George Washington Carver, Joan
Crawford, Joe Friday
 % of U.S. Population: 25%; 25% are female, 75%
are male.
 Facial Expressions: Horizontal lines on the forehead.
 Office/Home: Organized, functional, orderly,
contemporary; Awards, certificates, plaques
displayed. Everything in its place.
 Traits: Ability to think logically; takes in facts and
ideas and synthesize them.
 Management Style: Democratic
 Channels of Communication: Requestive
REACTOR PERSONALITY
• Perception: Feels first; takes in people and things by
feeling about them.
• Character strengths: Compassionate, sensitive and
warm.
• Examples: E.T., Mr. Rogers, Jennifer Hart, Uncle
Remus, Dr. "Bones" McCoy, C3PO, Lassie, Dinah
Shore, Barney
• % of U.S. Population: 30%; 75% are female, 25% are
male.
• Facial Expressions: Half moon lines over the eyes
• Office/Home: Cozy, soft, nest-like; plants, family
pictures, pleasant smells, comfortable furniture, soft
colors, soothing music.
• Traits: Ability to nurture, be empathic and to give to
others. Good at creating harmony.
• Management Style: Benevolent
• Channels of Communication: Nurturative
DREAMER PERSONALITY
• Perception: Reflections; is motivated externally
• Character strengths: Imaginative, reflective and calm.
• Examples: Clark Kent, Charlie Brown, Gary Cooper,
Radar O’Riley, Forrest Gump, Greta Garbo, Albert
Einstein
• % of U.S. Population: 10%; 60% are female, 40% are
male.
• Facial Expressions: Smooth face, few lines even with
age.
• Office/Home: A place to work or live, plain, rustic, no
frills; environment is not that important.
• Traits: Ability to be introspective; works well with
things, tasks. Usually very adept with work requiring
hand skill.
• Management Style: Autocratic (receives)
• Channels of Communication: Directive (receives)
REBEL PERSONALITY
• Perception: Reacts to people and things with likes and
dislikes.
• Character strengths: Spontaneous, creative and playful.
• Examples: John Belushi, Dennis the Menace, James
Dean, Scarlett O’Hara, Hawkeye Pierce, Lucy, Snoopy,
Genie (in Aladdin)
• % of U.S. Population: 20%; 60% are female, 40% are
male.
• Facial Expressions: Smile lines around the eyes and
mouth.
• Office/Home: Full of stimulation, posters, games, toys,
lights and sounds.
• Traits: Ability to play and enjoy the present.
• Management Style: Laissez Faire
• Channels of Communication: Playful


43
PERSISTER PERSONALITY
• Perception: Judges first; evaluates people and things
with opinions.
• Character strengths: Dedicated, observant and
conscientious
• Examples: Martin Luther King, Mother Teresa, Madame
Curie, Superman, Florence Nightingale, Archie Bunker,
Eleanor Roosevelt.
• % of U.S. Population: 10%; 25% are female, 75% are
male.
• Facial Expressions: Furrows between the eyes.
• Office/Home: Functional; traditional furniture, period
pieces, antiques or oriental motif.
• Traits: Ability to give opinions, beliefs, judgments.
• Management Style: Democratic
• Channels of Communication: Requestive
PROMOTER PERSONALITY
• Perception: Action oriented.
• Character strengths: Adaptable, persuasive and
charming.
• Examples: Tokyo Rose, P.T. Barnum, Errol Flynn,
Preston Tucker, James Bond, Snydley Whiplash,
Marco Polo, Calamity Jane
• % of U.S. Population: 5%; 40% are female, 60% are
male.
• Facial Expressions: Ruddy complexion. Uses
expressions to make a point.
• Office/Home: Thick carpets, stuffed chairs, trophies,
blacks and reds.
• Traits: Ability to be firm and direct.
• Management Style: Autocratic
• Channels of Communication: Directive
 43
© J. Sommer
2004
WORKAHOLIC PERSONALITY PHASE
Psychological Needs: Requires being
recognized for thinking and for
accomplishments. "Good work," "Great idea,"
"A job well done." Requires time structure.
Wants to know deadlines.
Distress Sequences:
1st Degree: Expects self to be perfect. Doesn’t
delegate well.
2nd Degree: Frustrated with people who don’t
think clearly enough. Over controls with
criticisms about money, order, fairness or
cleanliness. (I’m OK… You’re not OK.)
3rd Degree: Rejects others: "They can’t even
think."
REACTOR PERSONALITY PHASE
Psychological Needs: Requires being
recognized as a person. "I care about you,"
"Do you like me for me?" Requires an
environment that pampers the senses.
Distress sequences:
1st Degree: Over adapts and pleases others in
an attempt to be accepted.
2nd Degree: Feels confused, makes mistakes
or invites criticism. (I’m not OK…You’re OK.)
3rd Degree: Gets rejected: "I didn’t feel
wanted."
PERSISTER PERSONALITY PHASE
Psychological Needs: Requires
conviction/belief recognition. "I admire that
about you." "I value your opinion." Requires
work recognition. "Great job."
Distress Sequences:
1st Degree: Expects others to be perfect.
Focuses on what is wrong instead of what is
right.
2nd Degree: Frustrated with people who don’t
share beliefs. Pushes beliefs (preaches at) or
crusades. Righteous and suspicious. (I’m
OK…You’re not OK.)
3rd Degree: Forsakes others: "They don’t have
any commitment."
DREAMER PERSONALITY PHASE
Psychological Needs: Requires having
private time and own space.
Distress Sequences:
1st Degree: Experiences having to be
strong. Spreads self too thin.
2nd Degree: Feels shy, inadequate,
embarrassed and withdraws. (I’m not OK…
You’re OK.)
3rd Degree: Gets left out: "Nobody told me
what to do."
REBEL PERSONALITY PHASE
Psychological Needs: Requires playful
contact. Enjoys humor. Likes stimulating
fun environment.
Distress Sequences:
1st Degree: Tries to understand or tries do
something. Invites others to think or do
the thinking for them. Delegates
inappropriately.
2nd Degree: Gets kicked, becomes angry,
and blames. (I’m OK…You’re not OK.)
3rd Degree: Gets censured: "I’ll show
you."
PROMOTER PERSONALITY PHASE
Psychological Needs: Requires incidence, a
great deal of excitement in a short period of
time.
Distress Sequences:
1st Degree: Expects others to fend for
themselves. Doesn’t adequately support people.
2nd Degree: Bends or breaks the rules.
Vindictive. Manipulates with believing that the
end justifies the means. (I’m OK…You’re not
OK.)
3rd Degree: Abandons others: "Can’t take it,
huh?"


44
 44
© J. Sommer
2004
Now go forth and teach others to fly
Go to the people
Learn from them
Love them
Start with what they know
Build on what they have
But of the best leaders
When their task is accomplished
Their work is done
The people will remark:
"We have done it ourselves."
2000 Year Old Chinese Poem


45
 45
© J. Sommer
2004
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