Scientific Management

Scientific Management.
The Pioneer of the theory is
Fredeirick Winslow Taylor (18561915)
• He was an engineer by profession.
• He is regarded as the father of Scientific
• He wanted to create an environment in which
economy and efficiency could be achieved for
industrial enterprises.
• He lived at the mature stage of industrial
• He beilived in applicability of science and
principles of science in increasing the
productivity ,economy and efficiency.
• The maturity of industrial revolution has
resulted in expansion and development of
commerce and industries
• This development has lead to a new kind of
managerial problems in industries.
• Taylor has observed the managerial process
within industries has been characterised by
chaos. It was in a chaotic condition.
• One problem was the high unit cost. This is
because there have not been any real division of
managerial functions and routine functions.
• He observed that the workers are heavily burden
on as he has to decide the way of doing things.
The workers were not following scienctific way of
doing. But the rule of thumb.
• Work methods, tools and procedures were
neither standardized nor planed for efficiency.
• The choice of method of the work to be done
was left to the workers themselves.
• There was the need to increase the
productivity of the work.
• The emergence of a new class of managers.
They were asked to face new problems that
were not faced by the earlier ones.
• His objective has been to fulfill the above
industrial needs of more scientific approach to
• His important book is named as “The
Principles of Scientific Management.
• His major thesis of the book is that
Management rests upon a clearly formulated
laws and principles which are universally
• In fact, his ideas can be read or understood as
responses to a set of challenges.
• 1. The Industrial revolution necessitated the
optimal utilization of resources, both human
and material.
2. The need to raise the production and
efficiency with economy.
3. The need of new management techniques.
Goals of Scientific Management
• To raise the industrial output by systematic
application of methods of science to
managerial Problems and Procedures
1. Industrial Processes can be made open for
scientific observation and experiment. The
work procedures of labour can be reduced to
basic motions to ascertain the longest,
shortest and average time needed for each
2. The standard time prescribed for each
operation can be produced at a designated
standard of efficiency and economy.
• 3. The workers can be trained by management
in the best way/method for achieving
industrial objectives.
Principles of Scientific Management
• 1. Standardization of work method.
2. Scientific selection and training of workers.
3. Equal Division of work between managers and
4. Mutual Collaboration between Workers and
The paying systems is based rate system. Extra
work will be rewarded. This would erase the
conflict between capital and labour forever
because it is beneficial for worker as well as the
owner of the capital.
Evaluation of the Theory
• In the context of time in which Taylor lived, it
is a revolutionary idea. He has identified
Research, standardization, planning , mutual
collaboration and control as managerial
functions for the first time. This epochal
• It also has given guidelines to develop an
effective and efficient organization.
• It is believed that Scientific Management ideas
have made an snowballing impact on
administrative thought.
• Demerits
• It believes that human being can be motivated
only through economic incentives.
• The ideas of scientific management and trade
unions are incompatible.
• This approach is mechanistic