Unit3-A

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Unit 3 Section A
Where Principles Come First
AIR FORCE UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING
FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PRESS
Contents
Lead-in
A
Pre-reading
B
Text Study
C
Summary
D
Writing
E
Lead-in
1. Interactive Mode I
2. Interactive Mode II
3. Interactive Mode III
4. Interactive Mode IV
预习
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Lead-in
课文
小结
Our today’s topic is “Where
Principles Come First”. Now
let’s tackle it in order to
familiarize ourselves with the
background to the birth of the
text. Our topic-centered lead-in
begins with the questions as
follows:
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Interactive Mode I
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1. For what do you come to college?
Tips
1) Some may focus so much of their time on
academic achievement that …
2) Some may build up their ability in living
on their own, so as to …
3) Some may extend their talent for a
specialty in order to …
4) Some may attach more weight to the
romance and pleasure …
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Interactive Mode II
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Now let’s listen to a short passage and then proceed with
our lead-in.
Tips
Key Words: ... cultivating a comprehensive
set of principles … demand the commitment
of the students’ parents … accept the school’s
philosophies … attending at least three
workshops, … seminars … recognizes …
depends on parent involvement … act as
daily role models for their children …
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2. What does the Hyde School value? Why?
Tips
1) Attitude or aptitude?
2) Ability or effort?
3) Intelligence or character?
4) Conscience or achievement?
5) ….
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3. What is the biggest challenge to the achievement
of their goal? Why?
Tips
1) Difficulty in getting the students to
accept their system;
2) Strong opposition from the teachers of
other schools;
3) Inactive commitment of the students’
parents to their program;
4) …
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4. What do you think the students of the Hyde
School will get from their program?
Tips
1) If brought up in courage, students will …
2) If raised in integrity, students will …
3) If cultivated in leadership, students will …
4) If filled with curiosity, students will …
5) If endowed with concern, students will …
6) If enriched with all the above, students will …
For conclusion
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The Birth of the Text
Different from
other schools, the
Hyde School values
character over
intelligence.
Every student
reaps a lot from
the program, so as
to get better
prepared for
challenges in life.
Factor I
Factor II
Factor III
Author
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Some schools
protest its
demands and
many parents
make little
commitment to it.
Impressed with the
program, the
author had an urge
to write it out.
Pre-reading
1
Background Information
2
Watch and Discuss
3
New Words
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Background Information
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The Hyde School: (A)
In 1966, Joseph W. Gauld founded the first
Hyde School in Bath, Maine in response to a
system of education which he believed was
failing its children because of too much
focus on academic achievement rather than
character. His search for a new approach in
education led to a program that valued attitude
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The Hyde School: (B)
over aptitude, effort over
ability, and character over
talent. This emphasis creates
a learning environment where
students experience success
with integrity, the kind of
success that lasts a lifetime. Gauld established the
Hyde curriculum, based upon Five Words, rather
than five subjects: Courage, Integrity, Leadership,
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The Hyde School: (C)
Curiosity, and Concern, and
he incorporated them into
every facet of the program.
The school cherishes the idea
that educational reform must
begin with the family. Actually,
the Family Education Program is what makes the
Hyde education unique. The school believes that
parents are the primary teachers and the home is
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The Hyde School: (D)
the primary classroom. This
involvement of families for
more than 35 years has led the
school to a number of
discoveries. One of Hyde’s
basic purposes is to develop
character. This focus on character unleashes the
deepest motivation for students’ self-discovery.
The school helps students answer three questions:
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The Hyde School: (E)
Who am I?
Where am I going?
What do I need to do to get
there?
Relationships built upon
honesty and concern can also
be key to helping students. Hyde has created a
new student role, where students, parents, and
faculty are required to help others achieve their
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The Hyde School: (F)
best.
Today, there are four Hyde Schools, including
inner-city models in New Haven, Connecticut
and Washington DC, national programs for
parents and teachers, and a number of established
partnerships with public schools throughout the
country.
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Bath:
The first Hyde School was located in Bath, an
old seafaring town. It was listed one of the
“Best Small Cities
in America” and was deemed a “Distinctive
Destination” by the National Trust for Historic
Preservation.
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Maine: (A)
Maine is a state of the
northeast United States. It was
admitted as the 23rd state in
1820. Located in the extreme
northeast corner of the United
States, Maine consists largely
of a coastal plain of eroded valleys, with more
resistant rock forming the generally mountainous
west. Over 80% of Maine is forested with great
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Maine: (B)
stands of white pine, hemlock,
spruce, fir, and hardwoods.
Sheltered by the woods and
with abundant water from
numerous lakes, particularly
in the northern counties,
wildlife includes moose, deer, black bear, and
smaller animals; fish and fowl are also plentiful.
The population of Maine is centered on the
cleared land along the coast and major rivers.
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Baltimore:
Baltimore is a city in northern
Maryland on an arm of the
Chesapeake Bay northeast of
Washington, DC. It has been a
busy port since the 18th
century. On the move with
new attractions, Baltimore is an exciting city with
charming neighborhoods, ethnic and cultural
diversity, and a wealth of history.
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Cultural Notes: (A)
The United States has both
public schools and private
schools. Public schools are
government-controlled at the
city level, with standards being
set partially at the state and
federal level. Generally speaking, the city has the
most influence on the schools, followed by the
state, and finally by the federal government.
Funding for public schools comes from all three
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Cultural Notes: (B)
levels of government, the
primary source being local
property taxes paid by
homeowners. There is no
charge for attending public
schools.
Private schools, on the other hand, can be quite
expensive to attend. So why do parents send their
children to private schools? There are several
reasons. One is status. Some private schools are
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Cultural Notes: (C)
highly regarded, and lend
prestige to their students and
alumni. Another reason is
quality of education, although
there are some public schools
that offer education superior
to private schools. A third reason is wishing to
avoid problems associated with a small number of
students at certain public schools, including
violence and drug use. The other reason is religion.
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Cultural Notes: (D)
Some parents want their
children to attend schools that
teach religion as well as
academics, which is prohibited
by law in the public schools.
A final trend to discuss in
American education is home schooling. This
practice, which has been growing in popularity in
recent years, involves teaching children in the
home, as the name implies. Home schooling is
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Cultural Notes: (E)
most popular with religious
conservatives, who are
concerned their children might
be exposed to things
and ideas they would prefer
them to avoid.
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Watch and Discuss
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Directions:
Watch the video and then discuss the topics as follows:
1. What is your ideal college like?
Key
2. What do you think of your present
campus life?
Key
Video watching
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New Words
leadership
publicity
cultivate
comprehensive
controversial
suspend
strain
preliminary
magnet
minority
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n.
n.
vt.
a.
a.
vt.
n. / vt.
a.
n.
n.
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[U] 1. 领导才能 2. 领导地位; 领导权
[U] 1. 关注 2. 宣传; 推广
1. 培养 2. 耕种, 耕作
综合的; 全面的
有争议的; 引起争论的
1. 暂停, 中止 2. 悬; 挂
[C, U] 压力 / 1. 扭伤 2. 使关系紧张
预备的; 初步的
[C] 1. 有吸引力的人或物 2. 磁铁
[C] (usu. pl.) 少数民族; [sing.] 少数派
背景知识
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New Words
quest
energetic
conventional
reform
intelligence
controversy
curriculum
preparation
mixture
admission
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n.
a.
a.
vt. / n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
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[C] 探寻, 寻求
精力充沛的; 充满活力的
传统的; 常规的
改革; 改进 / [C, U] 改革; 改进
[U] 智力; 理解力
[C, U] 争议, 争论
[C] (pl. curriculums or curricula) 课程
1. [U] 准备 2. (~s) 准备工作; 筹备工作
[C] 混合; 混合体
1. [U] 准许加入 2. [C] 承认; 供认
背景知识
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New Words
outlook
workshop
seminar
attendance
utmost
worthwhile
enroll
outset
optimistic
fruitful
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n.
n.
n.
n. / a.
a.
v.
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1. [C] 看法, 态度 2. [C] 前景, 远景
1. [C] 研讨会; 研习班 2. [C] 车间
[C] 研讨会
1. [C, U] 出席人数 2. [U] 出席; 参加
[U] 极限; 最大限度 / 最大的, 极度的
值得 (做) 的
(使) 登记入学; 注册
[U] 开端, 开始
乐观的
富有成效的
背景知识
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New Words
n.
faculty
n.
campus
n.
jail
vt. / n.
insult
vt. / n.
curse
see… as
be scheduled to do
over one’s protest
put forth
complete with
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1. [U] (AmE) 全体教员 2. [C] 天赋
[C, U] (大学) 校园
[C, U] 监狱
侮辱; 辱骂 / [C] 侮辱; 辱骂
诅咒; 咒骂 / [C] 诅咒; 咒骂
认为…是
被安排, 定于
不顾某人的抗议
使出; 发挥
包括; 具有
背景知识
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New Words
do one’s utmost
work out
at the outset
kind of
Hyde School
Joseph Gauld
Bath, Maine
Malcolm Gauld
Joe
Hyde Foundation
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竭尽全力
制订; 找到
开始
有点儿; 有几分
海德中学
约瑟夫 · 高尔德 (人名)
缅因州巴思市
马尔科姆 · 高尔德 (人名)
乔 (Joseph 的昵称)
海德基金会
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New Words
Baltimore
New Haven,
Connecticut
Jimmy DiBattista
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巴尔的摩 (美国马里兰州中北部港市)
康涅狄格州纽黑文市
吉米 · 迪巴蒂斯塔 (人名)
背景知识
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Text Study
1
Topic-centered Analysis of Text
2
Detailed Reading of Text
3
Abridgement of Text
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Topic-centered Analysis of Text
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How does the writer develop the topic into an article?
The writer developed the topic by employing the
reading technique of “questions and answers”,
with which the writer, on behalf of the reader,
asks himself one question after another first, and
then answers them one by one until his ideas are
made clear to the reader. This is a very important
technique of bringing out the relationship
between the paragraphs, as shown below.
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Where Principles Come First
Main Idea
Main Idea
Q. & A. I
Q. & A. II
?
Q. & A. III
Writing
Technique
(W.T.)
?
Q. & A. IV
Structure
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Where Principles Come First
Para. 1 The Hyde School operates on the
principle that if you teach students the merit of
such values as truth, courage, integrity,
leadership, curiosity and concern, then academic
achievement naturally follows. 句型 Hyde School
founder Joseph Gauld claims success with the
program at the $18,000-a-year high school in
Bath, Maine, which has received considerable
publicity for its work with troubled youngsters.
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Para. 2 “We don’t see ourselves as a
school for a type of kid,” says
Malcolm Gauld, Joseph’s son, who
graduated from Hyde and is now
headmaster. “We see ourselves as
preparing kids for a way of life—by
cultivating a comprehensive set of
principles that can affect all kids.” 句型
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Para. 3 Now, Joe Gauld is trying to spread his
controversial Character First idea to public,
inner-city schools willing to use the tax dollars
spent on the traditional program for the new
approach. The first Hyde public school program
opened in September 1992. Within months the
program was suspended. Teachers protested the
program’s demands and the strain associated
with more intense work.
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Para. 4a This fall, the Hyde Foundation is
scheduled to begin a preliminary public
school program in Baltimore. Teachers will
be trained to later work throughout the
entire Baltimore system. Other US school
managers are eyeing the program, too.
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Para. 4b Last fall, the Hyde Foundation
opened a magnet program within a public
high school in the suburbs of New Haven,
Connecticut, over parents’ protests. The
community feared the school would attract
inner-city minority and troubled students.
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Para. 5 As in Maine, the quest for truth
is also widespread at the school in
Connecticut. In one English class, the
11 students spend the last five minutes
in an energetic exchange evaluating
their class performance for the day on
a 1-10 scale.
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Para. 6 “I get a 10.”
Para. 7 “I challenge that. You
didn’t do either your grammar
or your spelling homework.”
Para. 8 “OK, a seven.”
Para. 9 “You ought to get a six.”
Para. 10 “Wait, I put my best effort forth here.”
Para. 11 “Yeah, but you didn’t ask questions
Structural Analysis?
today.”
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Para. 12a Explaining his approach to
education, Joe Gauld says the conventional
education system cannot be reformed. He
notes “no amount of change” with the horse
and carriage “will produce an automobile”.
The Hyde School assumes “every human
being has a unique potential” that is based
on character, not intelligence or wealth.
Conscience and hard work are valued.
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Para. 12b Success is measured by growth,
not academic achievement. Students are
required to take responsibility for each other.
To avoid the controversy of other character
programs used in US schools, Gauld says the
concept of doing your best has nothing to do
with forcing the students to accept a
particular set of morals or religious values.
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Para. 13 The Hyde curriculum is similar to
conventional schools that provide preparation
for college, complete with English, history, math
and science. But all students are required to
take performing arts and sports, and provide a
community service. For each course, students
get a grade for academic achievement and for
“best effort”. At Bath, 97% of the graduates
attend four-year colleges.
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Para. 14a Commitment among parents is a key
ingredient in the Hyde mixture. 句型 For the
student to gain admission, parents also must
agree to accept and demonstrate the school’s
philosophies and outlook. 句型 The parents agree
in writing to meet monthly in one of 20 regional
groups, go to a yearly three-day regional retreat,
and spend at least three times a year in workshops, discussion groups and seminars at Bath.
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Para. 14b Parents of Maine students have an
attendance rate of 95% in the many sessions.
Joe and Malcolm Gauld both say children
tend to do their utmost when they see their
parents making similar efforts. 句型 The
biggest obstacle for many parents, they say, is
to realize their own weaknesses.
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Para. 15 The process for public school parents is
still being worked out, with a lot more difficulty
because it is difficult to convince parents that it is
worthwhile for them to participate. Of the 100
students enrolled in New Haven, about 30% of
the parents attend special meetings. The low
attendance is in spite of commitments they made
at the outset of the program when Hyde officials
interviewed 300 families.
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Para. 16 Once the problems are worked out,
Hyde should work well in public schools, says a
teacher at Bath who taught for 14 years in public
schools. He is optimistic that once parents make
a commitment to the program, they will be daily
role models for their children, unlike parents
whose children are in boarding schools.
Structural Analysis?
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Para. 17a One former inner-city high
school teacher who now works in the New
Haven program, says teachers also benefit.
“Here we really begin to focus on having a
fruitful relationship with each student. Our
focus is really about teacher to student and
then we together deal with the... academics.
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Para. 17b In the traditional high school
setting, it’s teacher to the material and
then to the student.” The teacher-student
relationship is taken even further at Hyde.
Faculty evaluations are conducted by the
students.
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Para. 18 Jimmy DiBattista, 19, is
amazed he will graduate this May from
the Bath campus and plans to attend a
university. Years ago, he had seen his
future as “jail, not college”. DiBattista
remembers his first days at Hyde.
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Para. 19 “When I came here, I insulted
and cursed everybody. Every other school
was, ‘Get out, we don’t want to deal with
you.’ I came here and they said, ‘We kind
of like that spirit. We don’t like it with the
negative attitudes. We want to turn that
spirit positive.’”
Structural Analysis?
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Abridgement of Text
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Now that we become more familiar with
the organization of the text, as shown in the
block diagram, what can we derive from the
text in order to abridge it into a threeparagraph essay, or what can we also do with
the refined language points if supposed to write
a composition on other topics, such as how to
carry out our educational reform?
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结构分析
课文阅读
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Where Principles Come First
Para. 1 Unlike many other traditional schools,
the Hyde School operates on the principle that if
you teach students the merit of such values as
truth, courage, integrity, leadership, curiosity
and concern, then their academic achievement
naturally follows. Its efforts to spread the
Character First idea, though confronted with a
strong protest from some schools’ teachers who
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结构分析
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complain about demanding strain, receive much
publicity for its success in some other public
schools, where the quest for truth is widespread
and students are encouraged to exchange their
evaluations on their own class performance.
Para. 2 The Hyde School’s unique approaches to
education, if taken in more detail, can boil down
to the aspects as follows. First, every student is
assumed as a unique potential based on character,
not intelligence. Conscience and hard work are
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结构分析
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valued. Teachers and students are required to
take responsibility for each other. Second, success
is measured by growth, not academic achievement. All students must take such courses as arts
and sports, and provide a community service. For
each course, students get a grade for academic
achievement and for “best effort”. And above all,
commitment among parents is a key ingredient in
its mixture. For the student to gain admission,
parents must agree in writing to accept and
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结构分析
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demonstrate the school’s philosophies and
outlook. According to its headmaster, students
tend to do their utmost when seeing their parents
making similar efforts. But the biggest challenge
is to convince parents that it is worthwhile for
them to participate.
Para. 3 Its teachers are optimistic that the Hyde
program will work well in public schools. From
their point of view, both teachers and students
benefit from these principles, for teachers begin
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结构分析
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to focus on a more fruitful relationship with each
student. As a result of this, 97% of the graduates,
including troubled students, get access to college.
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结构分析
课文阅读
课文缩写
Summary
English Equivalents of Chinese
Summary
Creative Application of Typical Expressions
Further Application of Typical Patterns
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写作
English Equivalents of Chinese
导入
预习
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写作
Back
academic achievement
a comprehensive set of principless
troubled students
学习成绩
一整套价值观念
问题学生
启动引人注目的计划 open a magnet program
over parents’ protests
an energetic exchange
在家长们抗议声中
激烈讨论
评价课堂表现
evaluate the class performance
make commitment to the program
投入到计划中
be role models for sb.
是某人的榜样
建立卓有成效的关系 have a fruitful relationship with …
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短语活用
句型应用
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
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写作
Back
1. 因······而受关注:
to receive publicity for …
2. 对······的追求:
the quest for …
3. 对某事负责:
to take responsibility for sth.
4. 连同; 包括; 带有:
complete with
5. 全力以赴:
to do one’s utmost
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短语互译
句型应用
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
引起广泛关注:
二十九届奥运会开幕
受到赞誉:
式受到广泛赞誉。
知
识
链
接
受到欢迎/被接受:
导入
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写作
意 群 提 示
the
thethe
29th
Olympic
Theopening
openingceremony
ceremony/ of
29th
Olympic
Games
Games was received with universal praise.
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Back
•receive wide attention
•be received with praise
•be received with open
arms
Back
活 学 活 用
预习
短语互译
句型应用
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
人生是一场游戏,在追
寻找某人/物:
求最好的时候,你要做
追求某人/物:
知
识
链
接
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课文
写作
•the hunt for sb. / sth.
•the search for sb. / sth.
•thirst / hunger for sth.
最坏的打算。
渴求:
Back
活 学 活 用
意 群 提 示
prepare
theinworst
one’s
hunt for
Life is a for
game
which/ during
you need
to prepare
sth.
for the worst during your hunt for the best.
随
Back
笔
短语互译
句型应用
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
如果建筑物有任何质
声称对某事负责:
拒绝对某事承担责任:
量问题,我都会追究
知
识
链
接
追究某人的责任:
你的责任。
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写作
decline responsibility for
hold sb. responsible for
意 群 提 示
If anything goes wrong with the quality of
go wrong with sth. / the quality of the
the structure, I will hold you responsible for
structure
it.
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Back
claim responsibility for
Back
活 学 活 用
预习
短语互译
句型应用
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
……一道:
同
比赛失利,加上巨大
……一起:
同
的心理压力,使他病
知
识
链
接
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写作
along with …
together with …
coupled with …
外加:
倒了。
Back
活 学 活 用
意 群 提 示
the defeat
mental
The
defeatin
inthe
thecontest
contest,/ great
coupled
with great
pressurepressure,
/ make sb.
ill him ill.
mental
made
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短语互译
句型应用
Back
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
至多:
现代体育的魅力,是需
尽力,极度:
要你竭尽全力。
知
识
链
接
饶有兴致地:
Back
活 学 活 用
导入
预习
课文
写作
• at the utmost
• to the utmost
• with the utmost
interest
意 群 提 示
Thecharm
the
charmabout
aboutsth.
modern
/ modern
sports
sports
is that
/ exert
it
oneselfyou
needs
to the
to exert
utmost
yourself to the utmost.
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短语互译
句型应用
Back
Further Application of
Typical Patterns
1. 用于说明“某人做
事原则”。
导入
预习
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写作
Back
Sb. do sth. on the principle
that …
2. 用于表述“不论怎
作用”。
No amount of change /
effort /…with sth. / sb. will
do sth. else.
3. 用于强调“某物
Sth. be a key ingredient in
样,对某人/事不起
是……的关键组成部
分”。
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sth. else.
短语互译
短语活用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
导入
预习
课文
写作
她从事文学创作的原则
是:她写,因为她有;
她写,因为她爱。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
She engages in literary work on the principle
engage in / literary work / write for what
that she writes for what she has; she writes
sb. have / write for what sb. love
for what she loves.
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短语互译
短语活用
Back
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
导入
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写作
不论如何努力,一
盘散沙是建不成高
楼大厦的。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
No amount of effort with a heap of loose sand
a heap of loose sand / a high-rise structure
will build a high-rise structure.
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短语互译
短语活用
Back
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
导入
预习
课文
写作
人成熟的标志,是
知道什么是他人生
成功的关键成分。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
The symbol of one’s being mature is to know
the symbol of one’s being mature / one’s
what is the key ingredient in one’s success in
success in life
life.
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短语互译
短语活用
Back
Writing
Writing
写作模式
写作实践
导入
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课文
小结
Writing Pattern
导入
预习
课文
General
Statement
Example(s)
For more
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小结
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Writing Pattern
导入
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小结
[Example 1 from the Text]
General statement: (Para. 5)
The quest for truth is also widespread at the
school in Connecticut.
Example: (Paras. 5-11)
In what class?
In one English class.
How many students?
11 students.
How much time?
5 minutes.
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写作实践
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Writing Pattern
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Back
What is going on there?
There is an energetic exchange among students
evaluating their class performance for the day on
a 1-10 scale.
How do they evaluate their performance?
A pair of students evaluate theirs like this:
A: “I get a 10.”
B: “I challenge that. You didn’t do either your
grammar or your spelling homework.”
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写作实践
Writing Pattern
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Back
A: “OK, a seven.”
B: “You ought to get a six.”
A: “Wait, I put my best effort forth here.”
B: “Yeah, but you didn’t ask questions today.”
[Example 2]
Have a look at the outline below and the
sample composition that has been written in the
structure of a general statement supported by an
example.
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写作实践
Writing Pattern
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General statement:
There is a relationship between earthquake
occurrences and animals’ strange behavior.
Example:
● the earthquake in Haicheng in 1975
● chickens and pigeons not entering their cages
● cattle not eating; dogs barking
● rats running out from hiding places
● catfish coming out of their ponds
● horses acting wild around their fields
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写作实践
Writing Pattern
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[Sample Composition]
Earthquakes and Animals’ Behavior
General statement: Dr. Smith argues in his recent
article that there is a relationship between
earthquake occurrences and animals’ unusual,
often strange behavior before such events.
Example: To prove his point of view he uses the
earthquake in Haicheng, China in 1975 as a
specific example. According to the report, many
local people had observed strange animal behavior
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写作实践
Writing Pattern
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before the earthquake. Chickens and pigeons
would not enter their cages; cattle would not eat;
dogs barked in chorus all over the town; rats ran
out from their hiding places and marched
fearlessly through houses; catfish leaped out of
their ponds; and horses ran wildly around their
fields. He concludes in his article that observing
animal behavior is one of the reliable ways to
predict an earthquake.
随
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写作实践
Writing Practice
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小结
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B. 写作实践
Directions: Write a composition of no less than
120 words on one of the following topics which
starts with a general statement supported by
an example. One topic has been given a
detailed outline that you can follow.
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写作模式
Writing Practice
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小结
General statement:
There are serious security problems in Brooklyn,
New York.
Example:
● Marissa Parry, on her way home in the evening
● walking through the parking lot toward the
entrance of her apartment;
● a man attacking her
● no one coming to help
● Miss Parry lying dead a few feet away from her
apartment
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写作模式
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Writing Practice
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Topic: Security Problems in Brooklyn, New York
[General statement] There are serious security
problems in Brooklyn, New York.
[Example] Not long ago a young lady was
murdered at a time still early in the evening.
Marissa Parry was returning home from the job
at about 9 in the evening. She was walking the
100-foot distance from the parking lot to the
entrance of her apartment. Suddenly a man
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Writing Practice
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attacked her from behind. He grabbed her and
stabbed her with a knife. Miss Parry struggled
and screamed for help. But no one came to help
her. The man stabbed her again! Then the man
got into his car and drove away. Miss Parry
could no longer stagger to her feet; she lay just a
few feet away from her apartment, dying.
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写作模式
Writing Practice
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[Writing Assignment]
Directions: Write a composition of no less than 120
words on one of the following topics which starts with a
general statement supported by an example.
Topic:
Exercise has unexpected benefits.
General statement:
Exercise has unexpected benefits.
Example:
● brain scientist William Greenough
● his studies with rats
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写作模式
Writing Practice
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● demonstrating the effects of activity
● in one experiment, laboratory rats being
separated into three groups
● the animals that learned to go through the
obstacle course exhibiting a greater number of
brain connections than the animals in the
exercised or inactive groups; the animals that
exercised inside the automatic wheel possessing
a greater density of blood vessels in the brain
than doing either of the other two groups of
animals.
随
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写作模式
Writing Practice
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小结
Back
[参考范文]
Unexpected Benefits from Exercise
Exercise has unexpected benefits. (General
Statement) Brain scientist William Greenough
proved it. His studies with rats have
demonstrated the effects of activity. In one
experiment, laboratory rats were separated into
three groups. One group was exercised by
running inside an automatic wheel, a second
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Writing Practice
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group improved their skills in a complicated
obstacle course, and a third group was inactive.
The animals that learned to go through the
obstacle course exhibited a greater number of
brain connections than the animals in the
exercised or inactive groups. In contrast, the
animals that exercised inside the automatic wheel
possessed a greater density of blood vessels in the
brain than did either of the other two groups of
animals. (Example)
随
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写作模式
End
新视野
大学英语
品德至上
Para. 1 海德中学的办学宗旨是:如果你向学
生传授诸如求真、勇敢、正直、领导能力、好
奇心和关心他人等美德的话,学生的学习成绩
自然就会提高。该校的创始人约瑟夫·高尔德
声称学校的教学很成功。海德中学位于缅因州
巴思市,每年的学费高达1.8万美元,因其教
导问题少年有方而闻名遐迩。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 2 “我们并不把自己看作一所专为某
一类孩子而开设的学校,”马尔科姆·高尔
德说。他是约瑟夫的儿子,毕业于海德中学,
现任海德中学校长。“我们把帮助孩子培养
一种生活方式看作自己的职责,办法是倡导
一整套能影响所有孩子的价值观念。”
新视野
大学英语
Para. 3 现在,乔·高尔德(约瑟夫·高尔德)正试
图将他尚有争议的“品德第一”的理念向旧城区
的公立学校推广。这些学校愿意将用于传统教学
计划的税金用于实施这一新的教学方法。海德公
立学校第一个教学计划始于1992年9月。但几个
月后,该计划即告暂停。教师们对教学计划的高
要求以及高强度工作所带来的压力表示抗议。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 4a 今年秋天,海德基金会计划在
巴尔的摩启动初步的公立学校教学计划。
教师要接受培训,以便今后能在整个巴
尔的摩体系内胜任工作。美国其他学校
的领导们也在关注这个教学计划。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 4b 去年秋天,在家长的一片抗议声
中,海德基金会在康涅狄格州纽黑文市郊
区的一所中学内启动了一个引人注目的教
学计划。当地居民担心该校可能招进来旧
城区的少数民族学生和问题学生。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 5 就像在缅因州那样,求真也在
康涅狄格州的这所中学得到广泛推崇。
在一堂英语课上,11名学生用最后的
5分钟展开激烈的讨论,依照1-10的
评分标准相互评价他们当天的课堂表
现。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 6 “我得10分。”
Para. 7 “我有意见。你既没做语法作业,也没
做拼写练习。”
Para. 8 “那好,就7分吧。”
Para. 9 “你只能得6分。”
Para. 10 “等等,我可是全力以赴的。”
Para. 11 “是的,可你今天没提问。”
新视野
大学英语
Para. 12a 在解释自己的教育方法时,乔·高
尔德指出,对传统的教育体制不能只是改革。
他说“无论怎样改革”,用马和马车“是改
革不出汽车的”。 海德中学认为“每一个人
都有自己的独特潜能”,这种潜能的基础是
品格而不是智力或财富。良知和苦干受到推
崇。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 12b 成功由不断进步来衡量,而不是
由学习成绩来评定。学生必须相互负责。
为了避免美国中学使用的其他品格培养方
案所引发的争议,高尔德解释说,“全力
以赴”这一概念并不是要强迫学生接受某
一套道德原则或宗教观念。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 13 海德中学的课程与那些为升入大学做准
备的传统学校所开设的课程相似,包括英语、历
史、数学和自然科学。但所有的学生都必须选修
表演艺术和体育,还要提供社区服务。在每门课
程中,学生都会得到一个综合了学习成绩和“努
力程度”的分数。在巴思市,97%的海德中学毕
业生都升入了大学本科。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 14a 在海德中学的综合教育中,父母
的参与是一个关键的组成部分。为了使孩子
被该校录取,家长也必须同意接受并实践学
校的思想和观点。家长们签约同意每月出席
一次区域小组会议(共20个区域小组),每年
去区域休养所三天,每年至少参加三次巴思
市的研修班、讨论组和研讨会。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 14b 在很多活动中,缅因州学生家
长的出席率高达95%。乔和马尔科姆·高尔
德都说,当孩子们见到自己的父母都在全
力以赴时,他们也会竭尽全力。他们说,
对许多家长而言,最困难的是让他们意识
到自己的不足。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 15 公立学校学生家长的活动计划仍在制定
之中。这项工作的困难要大得多,因为很难使家
长相信他们的参与很有价值。在纽黑文市录取的
100名学生中,有30%左右的家长出席了各类特
别会议。这一低出席率违背了他们在教学计划开
始实施时所做的承诺,当时海德中学的官员曾与
300个家庭进行了面谈。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 16 巴思市一名在公立学校教书达14年
之久的教师说,一旦问题得到解决,海德教
学计划就会在公立学校中获得成功。他乐观
地认为,一旦家长们投入到计划当中,他们
就会成为孩子们日常行为的榜样,这与寄宿
学校的学生家长完全不同。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 17a 一名曾任教于旧城区学校的教
师如今在从事纽黑文教学计划。他说,
教师也能从中受益。“在这里,我们真
正开始集中精力与每一个学生建立卓有
成效的关系。我们的重点真的是先考虑
师生关系,然后是师生共同探讨学业。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 17b
而在传统的中学里,是先
考虑教师和教材的关系,然后再考虑
师生关系。” 师生关系在海德中学被
进一步深化了。对教职员工的评估由
学生来进行。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 18 19岁的吉米·迪巴蒂斯塔今年
5月将从巴思校区毕业,并准备升入大
学。对此他感到惊奇。几年前,他还
觉得自己的前途“是在监狱,而不是
在大学”。迪巴蒂斯塔还记得他刚到
海德中学时的情景。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 19 “我来这儿时,见人就侮辱,就
咒骂。其他每所学校都会说:‘滚出去!
我们这儿不要你。’我来到这儿,他们
却说:‘我们有几分喜欢这种活力,但
并不喜欢它消极的一面,我们要将它转
化成积极的东西。’”
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
海德中学的办学宗旨是:如果你向学生传授诸如求
真、勇敢、正直、领导能力、好奇心和关心他人等
美德的话,学生的学习成绩自然就会提高。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
The Hyde School operates on the principle
that if you teach students the merit of such
values as truth, courage, integrity,
leadership, curiosity and concern, then
academic achievement naturally follows.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
Sth. operate / run on the principle that …/
Sb. do sth. on the principle that … 某事运行
/某人做事遵循的原则(宗旨)是······
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于表述“某人/某事遵循的原则”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
我们公司经营的宗旨是:人尽其才, 物尽其用。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
Our company runs on the principle that full
give full play to sb.’s talents / make best use
play is given to people’s talents while best use
of material resources
is made of material resources.
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
“我们并不把自己看作一所专为某一类孩子而开
设的学校,”······ “我们把帮助孩子培养一种生
活方式看作自己的职责,办法是倡导一整套能影
响所有孩子的价值观念。”
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
“We don’t see ourselves as a school for a type
of kid,” … “We see ourselves as preparing
kids for a way of life—by cultivating a
comprehensive set of principles that can
affect all kids.”
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
Sb. don’t see sth. as … Sb. see sth. as … 某人
并不把······看作······,而把······看作······
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于强调“某人对事物的看法”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
他不把磨难看作一种不幸,而是把它视为一种磨
砺意志的方式。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
not
see adversity
as a misfortune
/ see sth.
He
doesn’t
see adversity
as a misfortune.
He
as ait way
doto
sth.
else / his
harden
sees
as a to
way
harden
will. one’s will
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
他说“无论怎样改革”,用马和马车“是改革不
出汽车的”。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
He notes “no amount of change” with the
horse and carriage “will produce an
automobile”.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
No amount of change / reform with sth. will
do sth. else. 无论怎样改革,用······是造不
出······的。
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于强调“不论怎么做,对某事/人不起作用”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
无论怎样绞尽脑汁,小聪明也成不了大智慧。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
No
amount
of brains
a man
of petty trick
a man
of petty
trickwith
/ a man
of great
can
produce a man of great wisdom.
wisdom
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
在海德中学的综合教育中,父母的参与是一个关
键的组成部分。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
Commitment among parents is a key
ingredient in the Hyde mixture.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
Sth. be a key ingredient in sth. else. 某物是另
一物的关键组成部分。
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于强调“构成某物的要素”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
依据他的说法,诚信永远是一个和谐社会的关键
组成部分。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
Ininterms
said,
is always
a
termsofofwhat
whathesb.
sayhonesty
/ a society
of
harmony
key
ingredient in a society of harmony.
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
为了使孩子被该校录取,家长也必须同意接受并
实践学校的思想和观点。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
For the student to gain admission, parents also
must agree to accept and demonstrate the
school’s philosophies and outlook.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
For sb. / sth. else to do sth., sb. must do sth.
else. 为了他人/事能······,某人必须做······
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于强调“为成就某事某人必须要做的”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
要使自身才华派上用场,就必须知道什么才能
可使你大有作为。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
For your talents to come in handy, you must
come in handy / enable one to go far
know what talent enables you to go far.
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
乔和马尔科姆·高尔德都说,当孩子们见到自己的
父母都在全力以赴时,他们也会竭尽全力。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
Joe and Malcolm Gauld both say children
tend to do their utmost when they see their
parents making similar efforts.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
Sb. tend to do sth. when / once … 当······时,
某人会······
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于表述“某人在某种情况下的通常做法”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
具有钢铁般意志的人一旦确定了人生目标,就
会勇往直前。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
manwith
withaawill
willof
ofiron
irontends
/ set atogoal
for
Aaman
push
one’s lifewithout
/ without
hesitation
/ push
forward
forward
hesitation
once
he sets
a goal
for his life.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
中国因成功举办奥
运会而备受世人关
因某事而备受关注:
短
语
逆
译
注。
短 语 应 用
Back
to receive
considerable
publicity for sth.
意 群 提 示
one’s received
success inworldwide
doing sth.publicity
/ hold thefor her
China
Olympic
success
in Games
holding the Olympic Games.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
在他看来,眼前的困
使做好准备:
难是专门为他应对日
短
语
逆
译
to prepare (sb.) for
后的挑战而准备的。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
Ininhis
eyes,
the/ difficulty
at present
is
one’s
eyes
sth. at present
/ be designed
to
designed
/ in timeto
toprepare
come him better for challenges
in time to come.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
他强调说,实事求
对······的追求:
是应该成为一种时
短
语
逆
译
the quest for sth.
代风尚。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
He
that
the from
questfacts
for truth
from
facts
thestressed
quest for
truth
/ evolve
into
/
should
evolve
a vogue
of theinto
daya vogue of the day.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
只有当你真的知道人
生追求什么,你才会
全力以赴:
短
语
逆
译
• do one’s utmost
全力以赴地投入。
短 语 应 用
• to put one’s best
effort forth
Back
意 群 提 示
Only when you really know what you strive
Only when … can sb. do sth. / strive for sth.
for in life can you put your best effort in it.
Return to Para. 14b
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
当你开始对自己的
人生负起责任时,
对某事负责:
就会明白做人有多
么不易。
短 语 应 用
短
语
逆
译
Back
to take
responsibility for
sth.
意 群 提 示
When you begin to take responsibility for
be hard to do sth. / conduct oneself in
your own life, you will grasp how hard it is to
society
conduct yourself in society.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
经常和人相处,就会
连同,包括,带有:
使你的优点连同你的
短
语
逆
译
complete with
缺点暴露给别人。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
Frequent contact with people tends to expose
frequent contact with sb. / one’s merits or
to them your merits, complete with your
demerits / expose sth. to sb.
demerits.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
你们一旦签约成为生
意伙伴,双方都会受
以签约方式同意做某事:
短
语
逆
译
法律保护。
短 语 应 用
Back
to agree in writing
to do sth.
意 群 提 示
Once
you agree
in sb.
writing
to do business
with
do business
with
/ be under
legal
each
other, both sides will be under legal
protection
protection.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
说也奇怪,当人们意
识到某事值得做时,
某人值得做某事:
短
语
逆
译
却为时已晚。
短 语 应 用
Back
to be worthwhile
for sb. to do sth.
意 群 提 示
Strange to say, it is already too late when one
strange to say / come to the realization
comes to realize that it is worthwhile for one
that … / It is too late when …
to do something.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
比赛一开始,两位
对手不分伯仲,但
一开始:
随着时间推移,胜
短
语
逆
译
at the outset of
败渐渐明朗。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
At the outset of the contest, the two rivals
to be evenly matched / with the passage of
were evenly matched. But with the passage of
time / the outcome of the contest
time, the outcome of the contest became clear.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
不知为什么, 我开
始有点儿喜欢人体
有几分:
短
语
逆
译
kind of
解剖学专业了。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
be not sure
take
to / the
specialty
I’m
sure why
why,/but
I kind
of take
to theof
human anatomy
specialty
of human anatomy.
Interactive Mode I
Back
independent
of their parents
in face
of
Different students
may come
to college,
future
life. different
Some may
extend their
talent
harboring
ambitions.
Some
may
for
a specialty
to have
a big edge
focus
so much in
of order
their time
on academic
in
competition
with
others
forprepare
an ideal job.
achievement
that
they
could
And
some may
attach
more weight
to the
themselves
better
for future
challenges
romance
andSome
pleasure
the campus
from career.
mayon
build
up theirthan
on
anything
elseon
to their
add color
ability
in living
own, and
so asthrill
to beto
their college life.
For more
Interactive Mode II
Back
regional
groups,
going
to itself
a three-day
regional
The Hyde
School
sees
as preparing
camp
once
year,
attending
at least three
children
foralife
byand
cultivating
a comprehensive
workshops,
discussion
set of principles,
whichgroups
includeand
theseminars
values of at
the
homeintegrity,
of the school.
The school
recognizes
courage,
leadership,
curiosity
and
that the success of the students often depends on
concern. Academic success will then naturally
parent involvement and hopes that parents will
follow. To achieve this goal, the school demands
act as daily role models for their children. Indeed,
the
commitment
of the
students’
the biggest
challenge
they
face is parents,
not to getwho
the
must
accept
the school’s
philosophies
students
to accept
their system,
but toand
get the
outlook.
This
parents to
giveincludes
enoughmeeting
to makemonthly
it work. in
For more
Interactive Mode II
Back
truth,
Rather
integrity,
than do
leadership,
the same curiosity
as any other
and school
has
concern,
ever done,
their academic
the Hyde School
successvalues
wouldattitude
then
naturally
follow.
In that
thecharacter
school
over
aptitude,
effort
overlight,
ability,
over
always
intelligence,
sees itself and
as preparing
conscience
children
over for life
achievement.
on the principle
According
of Character
to theFirst.
schoolThis
founder,
focus
the
on character
conventional
is thought
system to
of set
education
free thefailed
deepest
its
children
motivation
because
for students’
of too much
self-discovery.
focus on The
academic
school helps
achievement.
students answer
So he three
believed
questions:
that if
you
Whotaught
am I?children
Where am
theImerit
going?
ofAnd
suchwhat
values
doas
I
need to do to get there?
For more
Interactive Mode III
Back
Togoal
achieve
theirchallenging
goal, the Hyde
their
is rather
andSchool
may have toBut
meet
lot of challenges.
demanding.
thea biggest
challenge They
they
mayisfind
is the
so little
mutual
face
howthere
to get
parents
to make
understanding
between
the teachers
enough
commitment
to make
it work,and
studentsthe
that
students
are reluctant
to
because
school
recognizes
that the
embrace
They depends
may runon
into
success
ofthe
theprogram.
students often
strong involvement
opposition from
the as
teachers
parent
as well
parentof
daily
other
schools
the attainment of
role
models
forbecause
their children.
For more
Interactive Mode IV
Back
If students
are brought
instand
courage,
they
if filled
with curiosity,
theyup
will
more
will
be brave
enough towhat
face up
to whatever
chances
of discovering
is still
unknown
challenge
they
into inwith
the concern,
future life;
if
to mankind;
if run
endowed
they
bathed
in integrity,
will keep
life free
will do their
utmostthey
to make
otherstheir
as happy
from
dishonesty
or easy
morality;
cultivated
and healthy
as they
themselves
canifbe;
and if
in
leadership,
will
knowthey
howhave
to act
as
enriched
with they
all the
above,
already
positive
role models
forway
society
in life;in life.
put themselves
on the
to success
For more
Watch & Discuss
Back
Justcollege
as ourhas
ideas
an ideal
college
2) The
an about
excellent
faculty
whose
are
not cut from
same
cloth, so the best
dedication
leads the
to the
all-round
college
may vary
from
to person, but,
development
as well
asperson
the individual
on
the whole,
westudent.
can share our views on the
growth
of each
following
points:
3) The college
values such a relationship
1)
The college
is aand
learning
environment
between
faculty
students
as is built on
where
theand
students
are wellfor
prepared
for
honesty
responsibility
each other.
tomorrow’s society, not for today’s one.
For more
Watch & Discuss
Back
Although
my campus
life is
far from
access
to reference
materials,
much
structure
of our
knowledge.
Inisstill
addition,
a
perfect,
it has
undergone
some
beneficial
to us.
And best
of all,welcome
theour
faculty
richer
variety
should
be added
to
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changes
since
I came
here.
Toopening
begin
with,
our
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weight
to our
EQ
time,
say,attaches
by prolonging
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moreballrooms,
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our
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as to ournet
IQcafes,
development.
fitness
centers,
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needs.
instance,
arenot
noAnd
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worried
ButFor
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foregoing
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mean
there
is
stadium,
readingwe
rooms.
above
all,
about
where
to
take a more
shower
aftertophysical
little
room
for
further
improvement
in
our
we
should
be
allowed
access
scientific
exercise.
Besides,
ourwe
learning
environment,
college life.
Instead,
still
a long way
research,
social
practice
andhave
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frontier
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to
thefields.
introduction
multimedia
into to
to cover.
First
ofOnly
all, our
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our
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this
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classroom-based
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be widened
or modified
soas
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the
college
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us best
for
For more
新视野
结 构 分 析
导入
预习
小结
写作
Back
Where Principles Come First
Main Idea
Q. & A. I
Q. & A. II
Q. & A. III
Q. & A. IV
W. T.
Q.: What are the principles of the Hyde
School? A.: If you teach students the
merit of such values as truth, courage,
integrity, leadership, curiosity and
concern, their academic achievement
naturally follows.
Quotation: (Para. 2) The headmaster of
the school says, “We see ourselves as
preparing kids for a way of life—by
cultivating a comprehensive set of
principles that can affect all kids.”
新视野
结 构 分 析
导入
预习
小结
写作
Back
Where Principles Come First
Main Idea
Q. & A. I
Q. & A. II
Q. & A. III
Q. & A. IV
W. T.
Q.: Are the principles accepted by other
schools? A.: Teachers from some schools
protested the program’s demands and
strain. But its principles were appreciated
in some other schools, where the quest for
truth was widely widespread as in Maine.
1) Exemplification: (Para. 3) The first
Hyde public school program opened in
Sept. 1992. Within months the program
was suspended.
2) The style of dialogue: (Refer to Paras. 6
-11)
新视野
结 构 分 析
导入
预习
小结
写作
Back
Where Principles Come First
Main Idea
Q. & A. I
Q. & A. II
Q. & A. III
Q. & A. IV
W. T.
Q.: What are the detailed principles of the
Hyde School? A.: 1) Every student is seen
as a unique potential based on character,
not intelligence; 2) success is measured by
growth, not academic achievement; 3) the
commitment among parents is a key
ingredient in the Hyde mixture.
1) Quotation (Refer to Para. 12)
2) Comparison (Refer to Paras. 13 & 16)
3) Deduction: (Para. 14) The general
statement (1st sentence) is supported by
specific details.
新视野
结 构 分 析
导入
预习
小结
写作
Back
Where Principles Come First
Main Idea
Q. & A. I
Q. & A. II
Q.: What are the benefits of its principles?
A.: Its principles are of much benefit to
both teachers and students, for teachers
begin to focus on a fruitful relationship
with each student, while students turn
positive about their future.
Q. & A. III
Q. & A. IV
W. T.
1) Exemplification: One former inner-city
high school teacher … (Para. 17);
Jimmy DiBattista … (Paras. 18, 19)
2) Quotation: (Para. 19)
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