Unit 4 Section A
Five Famous Symbols
of American Culture
AIR FORCE UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING
FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND RESEARCH PRESS
Contents
Lead-in
A
Pre-reading
B
Text Study
C
Summary
D
Writing
E
Lead-in
1. Interactive Mode I
2. Interactive Mode II
3. Interactive Mode III
4. Interactive Mode IV
预习
课文
小结
写作
预习
Lead-in
课文
小结
The topic today is “Symbols of
American Culture”. As is known to all,
criteria for cultural symbols vary from
person to person. Thus, the key point is
to know which symbol serves your
purpose of writing. Now let’s see what
kind of symbol can meet the following
criteria.
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Mode I
Mode II
Mode III
Mode IV
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Interactive Mode I
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1. Which can be a tribute to an event of historical
significance?
Tips
The Statue Monument of
of Liberty
the People’s
Heroes
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Mode I
Mode II
Peking
Opera
Mode III
NBA
Mode IV
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Interactive Mode II
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Back
2. Which can be descriptive of people’s inspiration?
Tips
American Gothic The Compass
Barbie Doll
The
Forbidden
City
The
White
House
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3. What can serve as a typical witness to tragedies in
history of one culture?
Tips Yuanming
The Great
Wall
Yuan
(Imperial
Garden)
Both Sides of
Buffalo Nickel
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4. Which of the following can be seen as a
product of times?
Tips
Uncle Sam
Lei Feng
Abraham
Lincoln
Confucius
For more
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Lead-in
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Now let’s listen to a passage to know more about the
birth of the text:
Script
Key Words: … owes … to ..., the claim to hot
dogs … argued at length ...; the Statue of
Liberty ... as a gift from the French …
symbolize the concept of freedom; the Barbie
doll, ... the queen of all toys; American Gothic, a
portrait …; the Buffalo nickel, a tribute to …;
Uncle Sam, resolve, strength, and patriotism.
For conclusion
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The Birth of the Text
A tribute to
something
significant in
history, like the
Statue of Liberty.
A witness to
tragedies in the
American
history, like the
Buffalo Nickel.
The cultural
symbol must be:
Criterion I
Criterion II
Criterion III
Criterion IV
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Descriptive of
Americans’
inspiration, like
the Barbie Doll
and American
Gothic.
A special
product of times
in history, like
Uncle Sam.
Pre-reading
1
Background Information
2
Watch and Discuss
3
New Words
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Background Information
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The Statue of Liberty:
The Statue of Liberty
was a gift from France,
unveiled on 28 October
1886 at Liberty Island
in New York Harbor as
a welcome to all visitors,
immigrants, and
returning Americans.
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Background Information
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American Gothic:
American Gothic is a
world-renowned painting
by Grant Wood. It enjoys
enormous popularity and
has become an American
icon and the model for a
countless number of
commercial art parodies,
such as posters, cards, and souvenirs.
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The Buffalo Nickel:
The Buffalo nickel is a
five-cent coin in the US
that bears “truly American”
symbols on it, i.e. buffalo
and native Indians. It was
designed by sculptor James
Earle Fraser and its first
production began in 1913.
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The Central Park Zoo:
The Central Park Zoo, located in New York
City’s Central Park at 64th Street and Fifth
Avenue, features two separate areas: the
wildlife center and the petting zoo. One of the
most visited events at the zoo is sea lion
feedings which take place in the Central Park
several times per day.
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Uncle Sam:
Uncle Sam was
originally a real person
but later this character
was developed by artists
and politicians into a
personification of the
United States, or the US
government in particular.
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Political cartoons:
Virtually every newspaper in the US, and
many other countries, publishes at least one
political cartoon on its editorial page. These
cartoons satirize events reported in the
newspaper. Often, they include caricatures, or
funny drawings, of politicians. For example,
Uncle Sam, the representation of the United
States, appears frequently in political cartoons.
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Watch and Discuss
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Directions:
Watch the video and then discuss the topics as follows:
1. Why does the guide in the video see the
Statue of Liberty as the most enduring
symbol of the American culture?
Key
2. Is it necessary to conduct the patriotic
education among the youth of today?
Key
Video watching
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背景知识
生词学习
The Statue of Liberty
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背景知识
生词学习
New Words
statue
liberty
enlighten
monument
independence
alliance
approve
affection
assemble
torch
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n.
n.
vt.
n.
n.
n.
vi. / vt.
n.
vt. / v.
n.
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[C] 雕像, 塑像
[U]自由 (权)
启发; 指导
[C] 纪念碑
[U] 独立; 自主
[C, U] 同盟, 联盟
(~of) 赞成, 赞许 / 批准; 同意
[sing., U] 喜爱; 爱慕
组装, 装配 / (使) 集合; (使) 聚集
1. [C] 火炬 2. [C] 手电筒
背景知识
视频讨论
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New Words
dedicate
bay
co-founder
three-dimensional
refashion
exaggerate
breast
version
universal
universally
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vt.
n.
n.
a.
vt.
v.
n.
n.
a.
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1.为 (建筑物等) 举行落成仪式 2.奉献
[C] 湾; 海湾; 港湾
[C] 联合创始人
三维的
重新制作; 重新塑造
夸张; 夸大
[C] 乳房; 胸部
1. [C] 版本 2. [C] 叙述; 说法
1. 全体的; 普遍的 2. 通用的; 万能的
ad. 普遍地; 无一例外地
背景知识
视频讨论
New Words
planet
fame
interpretation
solemn
medieval
grave
dentist
alongside
portrait
buffalo
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n.
n.
n.
a.
a.
a.
n.
prep.
n.
n.
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1. (the ~) 地球 2. [C] 行星
[U] 名声; 名望
[C, U] 阐释; 说明
庄严的; 肃穆的; 严肃的
中世纪的
1. 严肃的 2. 严重的; 担忧的
[C] 牙科医生
在···旁边; 和···一起
[C] 肖像; 画像
[C] 野牛
背景知识
视频讨论
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New Words
nickel
tragedy
settlement
frontier
destruction
herd
decoration
horn
liberate
colony
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n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
vt.
n.
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[C] (美国或加拿大的) 五分镍币
1. [C, U] 悲剧; 不幸 2. [C] 悲剧作品
1. [U] 移民; 拓居 2. [C, U] 决定; 协议
1. (the ~) 边远地区 2. (~s) 前沿; 尖端
[U] 破坏; 毁坏
[C] 牧群
1. [C] 装饰品 2. [U] 装饰; 装饰艺术
1. [C] (牛、羊等的) 角 2. 喇叭; 号角
解放; 释放
[C] 殖民地
背景知识
视频讨论
New Words
meat-packing
reputation
inspect
contract
origin
evolve
recruit
poster
chin
work on
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n.
n.
vt.
n.
n.
vi.
v.
n.
[U] 肉类加工
n.
[C] 下巴
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[C, U] 名声; 名望
1. 检查 2. 视察
[C] 合同, 契约
1. [C, U] 起源; 开端 2. (~s) 出身; 血统
演变; 发展
1. 招募 (新兵) 2. 招聘; 吸收 (新成员)
[C] 招贴 (画); 海报
从事; 致力于
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New Words
go ahead
for sale
name after
rise to fame
capture one’s attention
pose for
go against
the Statue of Liberty
Frederic Auguste
Bartholdi
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开始; 继续
出售, 待售
以···命名
成名
吸引某人的注意力
(为拍照或画像) 摆姿势
违背
自由女神像
弗里德里克 · 奥古斯特 · 巴托
尔迪 (1834—1904, 法国雕塑家)
背景知识
视频讨论
New Words
Philadelphia
New York Bay
Barbie
Barbara Handler
Elliot Handler
Ruth Handler
Mattel Toy Company
Ken
American Gothic
Grant Wood
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费城
纽约湾
芭比 (娃娃)
芭芭拉 · 汉德勒 (人名)
艾略特 · 汉德勒 (人名)
鲁思 · 汉德勒 (人名)
马特尔玩具公司
肯 (人名)
《美国哥特人》
格兰特 · 伍德 (美国画家)
背景知识
视频讨论
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New Words
Nan
Indian
James Earle Fraser
Central Park Zoo
Uncle Sam
Sam Wilson
the American Revolution
Brother Jonathan
James Montgomery
Flagg
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南 (人名)
印第安人
詹姆斯 · 厄尔 · 弗雷泽 (人名)
(纽约) 中央公园动物园
山姆大叔 (美国政府或美国人)
山姆 · 威尔逊 (人名)
美国独立战争 (1775—1783)
乔纳森大哥
詹姆斯 · 蒙哥马利 · 弗拉格
背景知识
视频讨论
Text Study
1
Topic-centered Analysis of Text
2
Detailed Reading of Text
3
Abridgement of Text
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Topic-centered Analysis of Text
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How does the author organize the text?
The writer organized the overall structure of
the passage by listing, which means that the
text falls into five parts. For each part, the
writer centers on one specific symbol, dealing
with it from different aspects such as who
created it, how he created it, when, and how the
symbol was accepted, etc. Now let’s see the
block diagram below:
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Topic-centered Analysis of Text
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Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
Main Idea
Main Idea
Part I
Part II
?
Part III
Writing
Technique
(W. T.)
?
Part IV
Part V
Structure
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Five Famous
Symbols of American Culture
The Statue of Liberty
Para. 1a In the mid-1870s, French
artist Frederic Auguste Bartholdi
was working on an enormous
project called Liberty Enlightening
the World, a monument
celebrating US independence and
the France-America alliance.
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Para. 1b At the same time, he
was in love with a woman
whom he had met in Canada.
His mother could not approve
of her son’s affection for a woman she had
never met, but Bartholdi went ahead and
married his love in 1876. 句型
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Para. 2 That same year Bartholdi had
assembled the statue’s right arm and torch, and
displayed them in Philadelphia. It is said that
he had used his wife’s arm as the model, but
felt her face was too beautiful for the statue. He
needed someone whose face represented
suffering yet strength, someone more severe
than beautiful. He chose his mother.
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Para. 3 The Statue of Liberty
was dedicated on an island in
Upper New York Bay in 1886.
It had his mother’s face and
his wife’s body, but Bartholdi
called it “my daughter, Liberty”.
Structural Analysis?
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Barbie
Para. 4 Before all the different
types of Barbie dolls for sale
now, there was just a single
Barbie. Actually, her name was
Barbara.
Para. 5a Barbara Handler was the daughter of
Elliot and Ruth Handler, co-founders of the
Mattel Toy Company.
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Para. 5b Ruth came up with the idea for Barbie
after watching her daughter play with paper
dolls. The three-dimensional model for Barbie
was a German doll—a joke gift for adults
described as having the appearance of “a
woman who sold sex”. Mattel refashioned the
doll into a decent, all-American—although with
an exaggerated breast size—version and named
it after Barbara, who was then a teenager. 句型
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Para. 6 Since her introduction
in 1959, Barbie has become the
universally recognized Queen
of the Dolls. Mattel says the
average American girl owns
ten Barbie dolls, and two are
sold somewhere in the world
every second.
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Para. 7 Now more than
sixty years old, Barbara—
who declines interviews
but is said to have loved
the doll—may be the most
famous unknown figure
on the planet.
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Para. 8 Barbie’s boyfriend, Ken,
was introduced in 1961 and
named after Barbara’s brother.
The real Ken, who died in 1994,
was disgusted by the doll that
made his family famous. “I don’t
want my children to play with it,”
he said in 1993.
Structural Analysis?
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American Gothic
Para. 9a Grant Wood instantly
rose to fame in 1930 with his
painting American Gothic, an
often-copied interpretation of the
solemn pride of American farmers.
The painting shows a seriouslooking man and a woman
standing in front of a farmhouse.
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Para. 9b He was strongly influenced by
medieval artists and inspired by the Gothic
window of an old farmhouse, but the faces
in his composition were what captured the
world’s attention.
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Para. 10 Wood liked to paint faces he knew well.
For the grave farmer he used his dentist, a sourlooking man. For the woman standing alongside
him, the artist chose his sister, Nan. He stretched
the models’ necks a bit, but there was no doubt
who posed for the portrait.
Para. 11 Nan later remarked that the fame she
gained from American Gothic saved her from a
very boring life. Structural Analysis?
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The Buffalo Nickel
Para. 12 Today, American coins honor
prominent figures of the US government
—mostly famous former presidents. But
the Buffalo nickel, produced from 1913 to
1938, honored a pair of connected
tragedies from the settlement of the
American frontier—the destruction of the
buffalo herds and the American Indians.
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Para. 13 While white people had previously
been used as models for most American
coins, famed artist James Earle Fraser went
against tradition by using three actual
American Indians as
models for his creation. 句型
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Para. 14 For the buffalo on the other side, since
buffalo no longer wandered about the great
grasslands, Fraser was forced to sketch an
aging buffalo from New York City’s Central
Park Zoo. Two years later, in 1915, this animal
was sold for $100 and killed for meat, a hide,
and a wall decoration made from its horns.
Structural Analysis?
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Uncle Sam
Para. 15 Fourteen-year-old Sam Wilson ran
away from home to join his father and older
brothers in the fight to liberate the American
colonies from the British during the American
Revolution. At age 23, he started a meatpacking business and earned a reputation for
being honest and hard-working.
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Para. 16a During a later war in 1812, Wilson
gained a position inspecting meat for US Army
forces, working with a man who had signed a
contract with the government to provide meat
to the army. Barrels of meat supplied to the
army were stamped “EA-US”, identifying the
company (EA) and the country of origin (US).
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Para. 16b According to one story, when a
government official visited the plant and asked
about the letters, a creative employee told him
“US” was short for “Uncle Sam” Wilson.
句型
Soon soldiers were saying all Army supplies
were from “Uncle Sam”.
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Para. 17a After the war, a character called
Uncle Sam began appearing in political
cartoons, his form evolving from an earlier
cartoon character called Brother Jonathan that
was popular during the American Revolution.
Uncle Sam soon replaced Brother Jonathan as
American’s most popular symbol.
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Para. 17b The most enduring portrait of Uncle
Sam was created by artist James Montgomery
Flagg in his famous army recruiting posters of
World Wars I and II. That version—a tall man
with white hair and a small white beard on his
chin, a dark blue coat and a tall hat with stars
on it—was a self-portrait of Flagg. 句型
Structural Analysis?
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Abridgement of Text
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Now that we become more familiar with
the organization of the text, as shown in the
block diagram, what can we derive from the
text in order to abridge it into a threeparagraph essay?
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Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
Para. 1 For Americans, the most famous symbol
of their culture is the Statue of Liberty, since it
is seen as a tribute to the most significant event
in history—US victory in the war of
independence. As a gift from the French, it was
created in the mid-1870s by the French artist
Frederic Auguste Bartholdi through using his
wife’s body and his mother’s face as the model.
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Para. 2 Barbie and American Gothic are more
descriptive of human inspiration. Watching her
daughter Barbara play with paper dolls inspired
Ruth to come up with the creation of the doll,
Barbie. Her idea was effected by refashioning a
German doll into a decent, all-American version.
Since its birth in 1959, Barbie has become the
universally recognized Queen of the Dolls. And
American Gothic is just a painting of inspiration
from the Gothic window of an old farmhouse, but
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what captures the world’s attention are the faces
in it, which reflect the solemn pride of American
farmers. The Buffalo nickel, in contrast, is more
representative of human destructivity. It bears
witness to two tragedies in history—the
destruction of the buffalo herds and the
American Indians. For its design, three actual
American Indians and an aging buffalo from
Central Park Zoo were used as the models.
Para. 3 Uncle Sam, as a symbol of honesty and
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结构分析
课文阅读
课文缩写
Abridgement of Text
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hard work, is a product of times. It evolved from
a real person named Sam Wilson, who, during
the American Revolution, supplied the army
with meat stamped “EA-US” identifying the
company (EA) and country of origin (US). It
was said then that US stood for “Uncle Sam”,
which was later presumed as true. Before long,
an American artist, James Montgomery Flagg,
created the most enduring portrait of Uncle Sam.
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结构分析
课文阅读
课文缩写
Summary
English Equivalents of Chinese
Summary
Creative Application of Typical Expressions
Further Application of Typical Patterns
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English Equivalents of Chinese
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写作
2. 自由照耀世界
to work on an enormous project
Liberty Enlightening the World
3. 爱上某人
to be in love with sb.
4. 对某人的爱慕
one’s affection for sb.
5. 开始;继续
go ahead
6. 面容沧桑却不失
坚定
7. 在小岛上落成
someone whose face represents
suffering yet strength
to be dedicated on an island
for sale
1. 设计一个大项目
8. 出售,待售
9. 把······描绘
成······
随
to describe sth. as
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短语活用
句型应用
Back
English Equivalents of Chinese
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10. 以······命名
课文
写作
Back
to name after
the universally recognized Queen of
11. 全球公认的
the Dolls
“娃娃女王”
12. 世上最著名的不 the most famous unknown figure on
the planet
为人知的人物
the interpretation of sth.
13. 对······的阐释
14. 美国农民庄严的 the solemn pride of American
farmers
自豪
15. 深受······的影响 to be strongly influenced by
16. 为画像摆姿势
17. 违背传统
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to pose for the portrait
to go against tradition
短语活用
句型应用
English Equivalents of Chinese
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写作
18. 在大草原上漫步
to wander about the great
grasslands
19. 获得了一个职位
to gain a position
20. 与······签订一份合
to sign a contract with
同
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短语活用
句型应用
Back
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
1. 想出:
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写作
to come up with
2. 把······改造成·····:to refashion … into …
3. 引人注目:
to capture one’s attention
4. 因······赢得声誉:
to earn a reputation for
5. 是······的缩写:
to be short for
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短语互译
句型应用
Back
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
接受高等教育是许多农
遭遇(困难或反对):
与······相等,符合:
村孩子出人头地的唯一
知
识
链
接
地位上升:
机会。
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写作
Back
to come up against
to come up to
to come up in the world
Back
活学活用
意群提示
For many children from rural areas,
receive higher education / children from
receiving higher education is the only chance
rural areas
of coming up in the world.
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短语互译
句型应用
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
将······变形,化作······:
我们可以将现在所承受
将······转化成······:
的压力转化为推动我们
把······变成······:
工作的动力。
把······变成某形状:
知
识
链
接
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意群提示
the stress
one suffers
/ a pushing
mover
We
can convert
the stress
we suffer
now into
behind
sth.mover behind our work.
a
pushing
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Back
to transform … into …
to convert … into …
to change … into …
to shape … into …
Back
活学活用
预习
短语互译
句型应用
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
吸引某人的注意力:
父母们所担心的,是娱
分散某人的注意力:
乐活动分散孩子学习的
将注意力集中在······:
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知
识
链
接
to distract one’s attention
to focus one’s attention on
to hold one’s attention
Back
意群提示
It is a worry to parents that recreational
be a worry to sb. / recreational activities
activities will distract children from studies.
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Back
to attract one’s attention
保持某人的注意力:
注意力。
活学活用
预习
短语互译
句型应用
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
享有很高的声誉:
这位老教授因其国学方
破坏某人的声誉:
面的造诣在文学界享有
保护某人的声誉:
很高的声誉。
名副其实:
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知
识
链
接
damage one’s reputation
protect one’s reputation
live up to one’s reputation
意群提示
The old professor enjoys a high reputation
sinology / high attainments in / in literary
in literary circles for his attainments in
circles
sinology.
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Back
enjoy a high reputation
Back
活学活用
预习
短语互译
句型应用
Creative Application of
Typical Expressions
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预习
课文
写作
缺乏某物:
总之,他擅长的是剽窃, 知
识
对某人粗暴无理:
链
缺乏的是道德。
接
缺少(某种特质):
to be short of sth.
to be short with sb.
to be short on sth.
总之,简言之:
in short
Back
活学活用
意群提示
In short, he is long on piracy but short on
be long on sth. / piracy
morality.
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短语互译
句型应用
Back
Further Application of
Typical Patterns
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写作
Back
1. 用于表述“某人做某 Some people disapprove of /
object to sb.’s doing sth., but
事的执着或固执”。 sb. go ahead and …
2. 用于表述“引人注目 Sb. do sth., but sth. else be
的是人们意料之外
what captures people’s
的事物”。
attention.
3. 用于表述“通过对某
Sb. / Sth.—… (description
人或事的细节描述,
从而对其进行界定”。 of sb. or sth.)—be …
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短语互译
短语活用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
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写作
她的父母不赞同她学医,但她不为所动,结果成
为一名出色的医生。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
Her parents disapproved of her studying
study medicine / turn out / a distinguished
medicine, but she went ahead and turned out
doctor
to be a distinguished doctor.
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短语互译
短语活用
Back
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
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写作
这家宾馆卫生状况好,饭菜可口,但最吸引顾客注
目的还是它一流的服务。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
This hotel is very clean and provides delicious
very clean / delicious foods / first-class
foods, but its first-class service is what
service
captures the customers’ attention.
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短语互译
短语活用
Back
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
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写作
那本有着红色封面以及精美设计的精装书是非常昂
贵的版本。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
That
withedition—a
red cover hardback
/ elaboratewith
designs
red cover
/
and
elaborate
hardback
designs—is
/ edition very expensive.
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短语互译
短语活用
Back
Writing
Writing
写作模式
写作实践
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小结
Writing Pattern
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Topic
Specific Details
(According to time sequence)
For more
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写作实践
小结
Back
Writing Pattern
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小结
Back
[Example 1 from the Text]
Topic: (Subtitle)
The Statue of Liberty
Specific Details (According to time sequence) :
(Refer to Paras. 1-3)
In the mid-1870s: French artist Frederic Auguste
Bartholdi was working on an enormous project
called Liberty Enlightening the World, a
monument celebrating US independence and the
France-America alliance.
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写作实践
Writing Pattern
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小结
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In 1876: Bartholdi married his love in spite of
his mother’s disagreement.
In the same year—1876: Bartholdi had
assembled the statue’s right arm and torch.
In 1886: The Statue of Liberty was dedicated on
an island in Upper New York Bay and Bartholdi
called it “my daughter, Liberty.”
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写作实践
Writing Pattern
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小结
Back
[Example 2]
Have a look at the outline and the sample
composition that has been organized according
to time sequence.
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写作实践
Writing Pattern
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小结
Back
Topic:
Barbie dolls
Specific details:
● sometime before 1959
the idea coming to Ruth Handler, the original
model being a German doll, refashioning into
a decent, all-American version
● in 1959
Barbie dolls being introduced to the public,
becoming widely popular
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写作实践
Writing Pattern
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小结
Back
[Sample Composition]
The idea for Barbie dolls (Topic) came to Ruth
Handler after she watched her daughter,
Barbara, play with paper dolls. That was
sometime before 1959. The original model of
Barbie came from a German doll. Ruth Handler
and her company, Mattel Toy Company,
refashioned the doll into a decent, all-American
version and named it after Barbara.
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写作实践
Writing Pattern
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Barbie dolls were introduced to the public in
1959 and have become the universally
recognized Queen of the Dolls. It is reported
that the average American girl owns ten Barbie
dolls, and that two are sold somewhere in the
world every second. Barbie dolls are loved by
Americans of almost any age. (Specific details)
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写作实践
Writing Practice
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小结
B. 写作实践
Directions: Write a composition of no less
than 120 words on one of the following topics
with the details organized in time sequence.
One topic has been given a detailed outline
that you can follow.
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写作模式
Back
Writing Practice
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课文
小结
Topic: The Life of Charlie Chaplin
Outline:
● born in 1889, living in poverty as child, little
schooling, showing gift for acting, wanting to
become an actor
● going to US in 1910, starting formal acting
career, making 80 films
● after World War II, giving up Little Tramp
character, wanting to grow as artist, later
settling in Switzerland, staying there for the
rest of his life, dead on December 25, 1977
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写作模式
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Writing Practice
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课文
小结
More Topics:
● He grew from a salesman to a millionaire.
● The development of our university
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写作模式
Back
Writing Practice
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预习
课文
小结
Back
[Sample Composition]
Topic: The Life of Charlie Chaplin
Chaplin was born in 1889 in London. His
childhood was one of extreme poverty and he did
not have much schooling. But Charlie showed a
gift for acting and longed to be an actor.
In 1910 Charlie went to the United States for
the first time as part of a troupe and thus started
his formal acting career. He was very successful
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写作模式
Writing Practice
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小结
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in his acting and made about 80 films throughout
his life.
After World War II, Chaplin did not stop to
rest on his earlier success. He gave up the Little
Tramp character and tried to grow as an artist.
Later Chaplin settled in Switzerland and stayed
there for the rest of his life. He died in
Switzerland on December 25, 1977 and the world
lost one of the greatest creative artists of the 20th
century. (Specific details)
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写作模式
新视野
大学英语
美国文化的五大象征
自由女神像
Para. 1a 19 世纪 70 年代中期,法国艺术家
弗里德里克 · 奥古斯特 · 巴托尔迪正在设计
一个大项目,名为 “自由照耀世界”。这是
一座庆祝美国独立和美法联盟的纪念碑。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 1b 与此同时,他爱上了一位他在加
拿大认识的女子。他母亲不赞成自己的儿
子和一个她没有见过的女子恋爱,然而巴
托尔迪不为所动,和心中所爱于 1876 年
结为伉俪。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 2 同年,巴托尔迪组装完雕像的右
臂和火炬,并将它们陈列在费城。据说,
他用了妻子的手臂为模本,但觉得她的脸
太漂亮,不适合做雕像模本。他需要这样
一个女人:面容沧桑却不失坚定,庄重多
于美丽。他选择了自己的母亲。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 3 1886 年,自由女
神像在纽约湾北部落成。
雕像综合了他母亲的脸
和他妻子的身材,不过
巴托尔迪称之为 “我的
女儿,自由之神”。
新视野
大学英语
芭比娃娃
Para. 4 在现今销售的各式各样的芭比娃娃之
前,原先只有一种芭比娃娃。实际上,她的
名字叫芭芭拉。
Para. 5a 芭芭拉 · 汉德勒是马特尔玩具公司
的联合创始人艾略特和鲁思 · 汉德勒夫妇的
女儿。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 5b 鲁思是在见到女儿玩纸娃娃之后才想
到做芭比娃娃的。芭比娃娃的三维模特是一个德
国洋娃娃,一个哄成年人开心的礼物,被描绘成
具有 “风尘女子” 的模样。马特尔公司将这个
娃娃做了一番改造,变成了体面而地道的美国版
本,尽管胸围有些夸张。它以当时 10 多岁的少
女芭芭拉的名字命名。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 6 自从 1959 年面世,芭比娃娃
就成了全球公认的 “娃娃女王”。
马特尔公司说,一般的美国女孩
拥有 10 个芭比娃娃,全球每秒钟
就有两个芭比娃娃售出。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 7 如今芭芭拉已有 60 多岁了,
她拒绝接受采访,但据说她非常喜欢
芭比娃娃。她可能是当今世上最著名
的不为人知的人物了。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 8 1961 年,芭比娃娃的男朋友面世,
以芭芭拉的弟弟肯的名字命名。真正的肯
于 1994 年去世。他对令自己全家名扬天下
的娃娃极为厌恶。他在 1993 年说:“我可
不想让我的孩子玩这洋娃娃。”
新视野
大学英语
《美国哥特人》
Para. 9a 1930 年,格兰特 · 伍德因其画作《美
国哥特人》一举成名。此画体现了美国农民庄
严的自豪,常常被人复制。画面展示了一位神
色严肃的男子和一位女子站立在农舍之前。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 9b 伍德深受中世纪艺术家的影响,
他的灵感来自于一所古老农舍的哥特式窗
户,但最令世界注目的是画中人物的脸。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 10 伍德喜欢画他熟悉的脸。为画神色严肃
的农夫,他选择了他那表情木讷的牙医,至于站
在他身边的农妇,他选择了自己的姐姐南。他把
模特的脖子稍稍画长了一些,但无疑能看出谁是
画像的原型。
Para. 11 南后来说道,《美国哥特人》带给她的
名誉使她摆脱了一种非常乏味的生活。
新视野
大学英语
野牛镍币
Para. 12 今天,美国的硬币都用来纪念美国政
府的杰出人物,其中大部分是著名的前总统。
但 1913 至 1938 年间发行的野牛镍币,却是为
了纪念由美国拓居引起的两起相互关联的悲
剧——野牛群的灭绝和美洲印第安人的毁灭。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 13 此前一直是白人被用作美国镍币
上的模特,而著名的艺术家詹姆斯 · 厄
尔 · 弗雷泽却反传统而行之,起用了三名
真正的美洲印第安人作为自己创作的原型。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 14 由于大草原上不再有野牛漫步,弗
雷泽为了镍币另一面上的野牛,只好到纽约
中央公园的动物园里素描一只老野牛。两年
后,即 1915 年,此牛以 100 美元的价格售
出,然后被宰杀取肉、剥皮,牛角制成了墙
上的装饰品。
新视野
大学英语
山姆大叔
Para. 15 美国独立战争时期,14 岁的山
姆 · 威尔逊离家出走,加入父亲和哥哥们
的行列,为美国殖民地独立于英国而战。
23 岁时,他开始从事肉类加工业,并因为
人诚实、工作勤奋而赢得声誉。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 16a 此后在 1812 年的战争中,威尔逊
获得了一个职位,为美国军队检验肉食。他
的合伙人和美国政府签订了一份合同,给军
队提供肉食。送到军队的肉桶上面都印有
EA-US 标志,EA 代表公司名,US 代表原产
国。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 16b 传说有一回,有个政府官员来
参观加工厂,问及这些字母的含义,一个
想象力丰富的雇员告诉他,“US” 是 “山
姆大叔” 威尔逊的缩写。很快,士兵们都
说所有的军需品都来自 “山姆大叔”。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 17a 战后,政治漫画里开始出现一个名叫
“山姆大叔” 的人物。他的原型是一个早期漫
画人物,名叫乔纳森大哥,此人在美国独立战
争时期非常出名。很快,山姆大叔就取代了乔
纳森大哥,成了最受美国人欢迎的象征。
新视野
大学英语
Para. 17b 最令人难忘的山姆大叔的画像是由画家
詹姆斯 · 蒙哥马利 · 弗拉格创作的,用在两次世界
大战期间他画的很多著名的征兵招贴画上。山姆大
叔的形象是:高个子,白头发,下巴上有一小撮白
胡子,身着深蓝色外套,头戴一顶高帽,上有星星
点缀。这模样其实就是弗拉格的自画像。
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
他母亲不赞成自己的儿子和一个她没有见过的
女子恋爱,然而巴托尔迪不为所动,和心中所
爱于 1876 年结为伉俪。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
His mother could not approve of her son’s
affection for a woman she had never met,
but Bartholdi went ahead and married his
love in 1876.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
Some people don’t approve of / disapprove
of / object to sb.’s doing sth., but sb. go
ahead and … 一些人不同意/反对某人做某
事,但某人不为所动,仍······
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于表述“某人做某事的执着或固执”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
他的父母不赞成他整日上网聊天,但他不为所动,
仍然天天沉迷于此。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
His parents didn’t approve of his chatting
all day long / chat online / indulge in
online all day long, but he went ahead and
indulged himself in it every day.
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
马特尔公司将这个娃娃做了一番改造,变成了体
面而地道的美国版本,尽管胸围有些夸张。它以
当时 10 多岁的少女芭芭拉的名字命名。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
Mattel refashioned the doll into a decent, allAmerican—although with an exaggerated
breast size—version and named it after
Barbara, who was then a teenager.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
Sb. do sth.—although … (省略从句) —,
and … 某人做了某事,尽管······,而
且······
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于表述“某人做了某事,虽然存有不完美之
处”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
公司想到了更好的促销策略,尽管成本更高一些,
它有效地解决了公司的问题。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
The company came up with a better—
come up with / sales promotion strategy /
although with a bit higher cost—sales
solve problems effectively
promotion strategy and solved its problems
effectively.
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
伍德深受中世纪艺术家的影响,他的灵感来自于
一所古老农舍的哥特式窗户,但最令世界注目的
是画中人物的脸。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
He was strongly influenced by medieval
artists and inspired by the Gothic window of
an old farmhouse, but the faces in his
composition were what captured the world’s
attention.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
Sb. do sth., but sth. else be what captures
people’s attention. 某人做了某事,但最引人注
目的却是······
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于表述“引人注目的是人意料之外的事物”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
他在学习上取得显著进步,但最吸引老师注意
的却是他优秀的品格。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
He makes considerable progress in studies, but
make considerable progress in sth. / one’s
his excellent character is what captures the
excellent character
teachers’ attention.
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
此前一直是白人被用作美国镍币上的模特,而著
名的艺术家詹姆斯 · 厄尔 · 弗雷泽却反传统而行
之,起用了三名真正的美洲印第安人作为自己创
作的原型。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
While white people had previously been used
as models for most American coins, famed
artist James Earle Fraser went against
tradition by using three actual American
Indians as models for his creation.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
While people do sth., sb. go against … by
doing … 一些人······,而某人却通过······反其道
而行之。
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于表述“某人与众不同之处”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
大部分公司邀请知名明星为其产品进行推销,而
这家公司却反传统而行之,雇佣了一个无名小卒。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
While most companies invite well-known pop
well-known pop stars / promote the sale of
stars to promote the sale of their products, this
products / hire a nobody
one goes against tradition by hiring a nobody.
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
传说有一回,有个政府官员来参观加工厂,问及
这些字母的含义,一个想象力丰富的雇员告诉他,
“US” 是“山姆大叔” 威尔逊的缩写。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
According to one story, when a government
official visited the plant and asked about the
letters, a creative employee told him “US” was
short for “Uncle Sam” Wilson.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
According to sb. / a report / a story / a
survey / a legend, sth. happened / sb. did sth.
据某人说/据报道/传说/据调查/传说,发生
了某事/某人做过某事。
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于表述“佐证”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
据传说,这块巨石是一位女子为了等候远方的
情郎化身而成的。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
According
a legend,
this/ the
huge
rock was the
huge rock to
/ distant
lover
transformation
transformation
of
a
girl
waiting
for
her
distant
of
lover.
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
山姆大叔的形象是:高个子,白头发,下巴上有
一小撮白胡子,身着深蓝色外套,头戴一顶高帽,
上有星星点缀。这模样其实就是弗拉格的自画像。
原 句 译 文
Back
逆 译 练 习
That version—a tall man with white hair and
a small white beard on his chin, a dark blue
coat and a tall hat with stars on it—was a selfportrait of Flagg.
产生式提炼
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
Sb. / Sth.—… (a detailed description of sb. or
sth.)—be … 某人 / 物——······ (对某人 / 物的
详细描述)——是······
产 生 式 提 炼
Back
应 用 提 示
用于表述“通过对某人/物的细节描述,对其
进行特别界定”。
产生式应用
新视野 - 产生式提炼与应用
那个留着小胡子,手持手杖,身着肥大的裤子与
燕尾服的人物就是卓别林。
典 型 例 句
Back
意 群 提 示
That character—a man with a tiny mustache,
with a tiny mustache / a cane / huge pants /
carrying a little cane in his hand and wearing
tailor
coats
/
the
character
huge pants and tailor coats—is Charlie
Chaplin.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
出于根深蒂固的偏见,
赞成 / 赞许:
大多数父母不会赞同自
短
语
逆
译
to approve of
己的儿子去当护士。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
Out
prejudice,
parents
outof
ofdeep-rooted
/ deep-rooted
prejudicemost
/ become
a
would
nursenot approve of their sons becoming
nurses.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
在这个紧要关头,我
想出:
们必须想出一个万全
短
语
逆
译
to come up with
之策。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
Under
this urgent
situation,
we must
come up
the urgent
situation
/ sovereign
remedy
with a sovereign remedy.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
设计师们将那些旧服装
把······改造成······:
改造成流行款式以清理
短
语
逆
译
to refashion …
into …
积压的产品。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
The designers refashioned those old dresses
designers / fashionable styles / clear off /
into fashionable styles to clear off the
overstocked products
overstocked products.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
一些不切实际的年轻人
成名:
总是梦想着一夜成名,
短
语
逆
译
to rise to fame
腰缠万贯。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
Some unrealistic young people always dream
unrealistic young people / dream of /
of rising to fame overnight and having a large
overnight / have money to burn
sum of money to burn.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
随着春节的临近,商家
引人注目:
们想方设法吸引消费者
短
语
逆
译
to capture one’s
attention
的注意力。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
With the Spring Festival drawing near,
draw neargo
/ go
great
lengths
do sth.
businesses
to to
great
lengths
to to
capture
consumers’ attention.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
拥有金卡可以使你在
使······免于······:
银行取钱时免去排队
短
语
逆
译
to save … from …
等待的烦恼。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
Having a golden card saves you from the
have a golden card / draw money from the
trouble of waiting in line when you want to
bank / wait in line / the trouble of doing sth.
draw money from the bank.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
妇女解放运动把广大
把······从······中解放出
妇女从封建的婚姻制
来:
度中解放出来。
短 语 应 用
短
语
逆
译
Back
to liberate … from …
意 群 提 示
Women’s Liberation liberated the broad
women’s liberation / the broad masses of
masses of women from the feudalistic
women / feudalistic marriage system
marriage system.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
他因对农业发展做出
因······而赢得声誉:
了巨大贡献而赢得声
短
语
逆
译
to earn a reputation
for
誉。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
He
agricultural
earned a reputation
development
for /making
make great
great
contributions
contributionstotothe agricultural development.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
AIDS 是获得性免疫功
是······的缩写:
能丧失综合症的缩写。
短
语
逆
译
短 语 应 用
Back
to be short for
意 群 提 示
AIDS is short for Acquired Immune
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Deficiency Syndrome.
新视野 - 短 语 活 用
他们的爱情是从一次
从······演化
/ 发展而来 :
偶然的相遇发展起来
短
语
逆
译
to evolve from
的。
短 语 应 用
Back
意 群 提 示
Their romantic love evolved from a chance
romantic love / a chance meeting
meeting.
Interactive Mode I
Back
3)
Opera,
though was
characteristic
1) Peking
The Statue
of Liberty
designed toof
Chinese
people’s
quest in
forthe
excellence
celebrate
US victory
war of in music
and
art, it does not
our to
given
independence,
as meet
a tribute
the criterion
desire of
forUS
cultural
peoplesymbols.
for liberty and freedom.
4)
(short for the
National
Basketball
2) NBA
The Monument
of the
People’s
Heroes was
Association)
is the
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despite
the fact
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China,
as athat
token
of the
Chinese
descriptive
of the American
and
people’s resolve
to abolish culture
the exploiting
popular
system.all over the world.
For more
Interactive Mode II
Back
The
White Gothic,
House and
the Imperial
Palace
in all
American
Compass,
and Barbie
Doll
Beijing
maypeople’s
be descriptive
of architectural
styles
shine with
inspiration.
American Gothic
peculiar
to American
and Chinese
cultures
is a painting
of inspiration
from the
Gothic
respectively,
is their special
that
window of anbut
olditfarmhouse,
but residents
the faces in
it
make
typical
both cultures.
make them
it peculiar
toof
American
spirits.The
TheWhite
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House
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everyfrom
American
is an instrument
of where
inspiration
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president
officeinlives,
it stands
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the Chinese
American
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similarly
The Forbidden
wisdom. And
Barbie Doll
is the outcome
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City
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a place
wheredoll,
everybut
emperor
inspiration
from
a German
now theof
Qing
Dynastydoll
lived.
refashioned
has become the queen of all dolls.
For more
Interactive Mode III
Back
Some
symbols
serveoftous
remind
a it
As
forcultural
the Great
Wall, most
believe
nation ofthe
herinspiration
tragedies inand
history. When it
reflects
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Yuan,
for instance,
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view
ofthink
its purpose,
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regard
it as
the scars
theynation’s
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China. Buffalo
aand
witness
to our
and
Nickel
bears
witness
to
two
tragedies
in
US
vulnerability.
history—the destruction of the buffalo herds
and the destruction of the American Indians.
For more
Interactive Mode IV
Back
It isFeng
saidisthat
times
theirculture.
heroes.In
If
Lei
a hero
of produce
times in our
so,
the Lei
greatness
of Abraham
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Uncle
Sam
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hasand
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bearing on the
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of American
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to liberate
Confucius.
he was
such a great
America
from
Britain,
thus of
turning
him
into
a
philosopher
that
his school
thought
has
had
figure
of trust,
andofpatriotism.
great effect
on strength,
our pattern
seeing things.
For more
Scripts
Back
“It’s
as American
as baseball,
hotofdogs and
has
always
symbolized
the concept
apple
pie”the
is commonly
used
to express
that
freedom;
Barbie doll,
which
has become
something
owes
its invention
to Gothic,
the United
the queen of
all toys;
American
a
States.
while avery
few and
would
portraitBut,
showing
farmer
hisdispute
wife; the
baseball’s
origin,
the claim
to hot
dogs and
Buffalo nickel,
a tribute
to the
buffalo
apple
pie can
be argued
at length.
Herekilled
are
the Native
American
people
who were
five
inventions
and
symbols
that are
and more
displaced
to make
room
for European
definitely
American:
thethe
Statue
ofof
Liberty,
expansion;
and finally,
image
Uncle
which,
though
given as American
a gift fromresolve,
the French,
Sam, which
represents
strength, and patriotism.
For more
Watch & Discuss
Back
The Statue of Liberty stands not only for the
most important event in the US history, the War
of Independence, but also for the nation’s quest
for the spirit of liberty, as the Declaration of
Independence goes, “ We hold these truths to be
self-evident, that all men are created equal, that
they are endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable Rights, that among these are Life,
Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness”. That is
why the statue is ranked as the first symbol of
the American culture.
Watch & Discuss
Back
Much to our distress, these years have seen a
Through
patriotic
education,
young
people
gross neglect of patriotic education in our
will
know
about
the glorious
history
of
society,
as more
a result
of more
and more
weight
our
nation,
thus
building
up
their
sense
of
pride
being attached to the economic effects or the
as
Chinese.
Moreover,
young
people
will
cherish
material gains. According to some official
today’s
hard-earned
life
and
draw
on
more
of
reports, many of the national heroes in the
their
potentials
to
make
tomorrow’s
life
better
Chinese history have given way to pop stars in
for
thepeople’s
sake of our
nation.
young
minds.
In view of the above,
there is a great need to inculcate patriotism in
the youth of today.
For more
新视野
结 构 分 析
导入
预习
小结
写作
Back
Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
Main Idea
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Part V
W. T.
To celebrate US independence and the
France-America alliance, a French artist
created the Statue of Liberty, with his
wife’s arm and his mother’s face as models
for his creation.
Time Sequence:
Time markers: In the mid-1870s, At the
same time, in 1876, That same year, In 1886.
Characteristics: the description of an event
resulting from the combination of two
events occurring at the same time. (Refer to
Para. 1)
新视野
结 构 分 析
导入
预习
小结
写作
Back
Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
Main Idea
Part I
Part II
Part III
Barbie originated from a German doll and
an American girl, Barbara, whose parents
made Barbie popular. Barbara and her
brother Ken, the human models of Barbie
and her boyfriend, had different opinions
on the doll.
Part IV
Part V
W. T.
Time Sequence: (Refer to Para. 5)
Characteristics: the description of a result
from two events occurring at different
space.
新视野
结 构 分 析
导入
预习
小结
写作
Back
Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
Main Idea
Part I
Part II
Part III
Inspired by the Gothic window of an old
farmhouse, Grant Wood produced
American Gothic. It was the faces of his
dentist and sister in the painting that
captured the world’s attention.
Part IV
Part V
W. T.
Time Sequence: (Refer to Para. 9)
Characteristics: the description of a result
from observing a static object.
新视野
结 构 分 析
导入
预习
小结
写作
Back
Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
Main Idea
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Part V
W. T.
Contrary to the tradition, the image of a
buffalo and three actual American Indians
were used on two sides of the coin, the
Buffalo Nickel, by a famed artist James
Earle Fraser.
Time Sequence and Contrast :
The device “contrast” is used in this part
to show the significance (refer to Para. 12)
and the uniqueness (refer to Para. 13) of
the coin.
新视野
结 构 分 析
导入
预习
小结
写作
Back
Five Famous Symbols of American Culture
Main Idea
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Part V
W. T.
When Sam Wilson was providing meat to
the army in a war, some explained the
initial letters “US” as Uncle Sam. It
became popular later because of a
character in political cartoons. An artist
created its portrait in army recruiting
posters.
Time Sequence: (Refer to Paras. 15—17)
Time markers: during the American
Revolution (1775—1783), when Sam
Wilson was 23 years old, during a later
war in 1812, after the war, during World
Wars I and II
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