Section 1

Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Chapter 3
Section 1
Section 1
• The Nile River brought the ancient Egyptians and
Nubians a constant source of water, allowing them to
fish, farm, trade, and build communities along its
•Because of the river’s cataracts, the Nubians had to
travel over land. They traded ebony wood, ivory,
ostrich feathers and eggs, panther skins, and throwsticks.
Section 2
Section 2
• The Egyptians believed their kings had the power to
provide floods and the harvests that followed.
•Accomplishments of three Egyptian kingdoms
•Old Kingdom – peace and trade with Nubia.
•Middle Kingdom – irrigation and public works.
•New Kingdom – huge, powerful armies.
Section 3
Section 3
• Ancient Egyptians believed in several groups of
gods, all of whom had control over major aspects of
life. They also believed in live after death.
•They believed that the gods controlled nature.
Section 4
Section 4
• Hieroglyphs were picture-like symbols that
represented sounds or ideas.
•Egyptians used hieroglyphs as their system of
•Writing enabled the people to keep track of their
economy through written records and, later, enabled
them to communicate more complicated ideas.
Section 5
Section 5
• Egypt and Nubia
•At first, they were friendly and traded goods. In time,
they became competitive, struggling over power and
control of the land.
• Napata and Meroe
•Napata conquered Egypt at a weak point in its history.
•Napatan rule restored and preserved many old Egyptian
•Egypt traded with both Meroe and Napata.
Essay Questions
1. How did the physical geography of ancient
Egypt shape the development of its
2. How did religion affect the lives of the
ancient Egyptians?
3. Why was the Egyptian Empire able to be
controlled at times by rulers of Nubia?
4. Why was the Nile River so important to the
lives of the ancient Egyptians?