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Study Guide Age of Exploration

Study Guide
Changes that led to the end of feudalism
The Crusades led to the growth of towns and trade that brought feudalism to an end.
Characteristics of Feudalism
 Social inequality
 Decentralized government resulting in weak kings
 A powerful Catholic Church
Characteristics of Mercantilism
 Main goal: Accumulate as much gold as possible Gold = Wealth
 How: Favorable balance of trade
 How: Tariffs
Importance of a Favorable balance of trade to mercantilism
 A country had to export more than it imported to have a favorable balance of trade
and accumulate gold
Reasons why colonies were important to a mercantilist country
 Provided raw materials for manufacturing finished products
 Provided markets for manufactured goods/ finished products to insure FBOT and
the accumulation of gold
 Colonies provide the mother country with cheap raw materials to make finished
products and markets for selling finished products.
Characteristics of a market economy
 Strong middle class
 Supply and Demand
 Limited government
 Private property
 Free enterprise
Effects of the new market economy
 The growth of a large middle class ( merchants, businessmen, entrepreneurs)
 A middle class made up of entrepreneurs (risk takers for profit)
 The growth of capitalism
What is the connection between mercantilism and capitalism?
Mercantilism marked the beginning of the market system (buying and selling) and led to
the development of a new middle class of merchants and businessmen. These merchants
and businessmen created the new market economy known as capitalism.
Global Trade
Middle Class
Market Economy
Main goal= Make individuals wealthy through the profit motive.
Basic Principle= Private property used by entrepreneurs to make a profit,
Name the leading maritime nations during the Age of Global Expansion.
What was the main goal of the countries?
To find an all water route to Asia and get rich from trading porcelain, spices, silk, and tea
Which maritime power was the first to set up trading posts in Africa and Asia?
What made the risk of the all water route decrease as the 15th century came to an end?
New navigational technology (scientific knowledge used to make new things) made sea
travel less risky.
Why did sea travel become less dangerous?
Cartography- map making-less likely to get lost
C aravel- a faster quicker more maneuverable ship- less likely to sink
Astrolabe- used the stars to determine latitude- less likely to get lost
Lateen sail- A triangular sail that allowed ships to turn and sail against the wind- less likely
to sink
Magnetic compass- determined direction- less likely to get lost
BOOM- Gunpowder which helped give the Europeans the superior weapons (steel and
guns) that allowed them to dominate the indigenous people of the Americas
Why were the Europeans able to dominate the people of the Americas?
The indigenous people were not strong and united and lacked the technology that would
allow them to compete with the Europeans.
Why were the Europeans not able to dominate the people of Asia?
They were strong united and had technology equal to that of the Europeans.
What kind of relationship did the Europeans have with the Asians?
A mutually beneficial trading relationship (win-win trade). Since the Europeans could not
dominate the Asians they were forced to set up coastal trading posts and trade with the
Asians as equal partners.
Define isolationism.
Staying out of world affairs- not being involved with other countries
Why did the Japanese adopt a policy of isolationism?
As a result of European trade Christianity began to spread to Japan. Japan saw this as a
threat to their culture and decided to cut off all trade and connections with Europe and the
world. (Isolationism)
The main source of slaves for the Portuguese and Spanish sugar cane plantations.
West Africa
Which areas of the Americas imported the most slaves?
The Portuguese in Brazil and the Spanish in the Caribbean (West Indies)
What impact did the slave trade have on Africa?
Slave trade  War  not unitedWeak Africa
What were conditions like during the Middle Passage?
The ships carrying the slaves from Africa to the Americas were hot, smelly, and unhealthy.
What type of colonies did the Spanish establish in Latin America?
Plantation colonies
Which PS FEN country started the plantation system for growing sugar cane in Latin
What is a cash crop?
A cash crop is a crop raised to sell for a profit.
What was the main cash crop grown in Latin America?
Sugar cane
What is a plantation?
A large area of land used to grow cash crops.
Why was it difficult to make a profit growing sugar cane?
It was very labor intensive. It took a lot of workers to produce.
What were the unintended consequences of forcing the native people to work on the sugar
cane plantations?
Millions died of disease and overwork. African slaves were needed to replace them.
Which European country was the first to have contact with Africa?
Why did the Portuguese and Spanish become interested in Africa?
So they could use the Middle Passage to force millions of Africans to come to Latin America to
work on the sugar cane plantations as slaves.
Did the Africans attempt to resist slavery?
They tried to move away from coastal areas and sometimes engaged in slave ship mutinies.
Why did the African attempts to resist slavery fail?
The superior technology of the Europeans made it impossible for the Africans to be successful.
What impact did the slave trade have on Africa?
It encouraged the Africans to engage in wars which weakened Africa and resulted in hatreds
which still exist in the 21st century.
What type of colonies did each of the PS FEN countries set up in the New World?
Plantation colonies----Portugal/Spain
Trading Post colonies---France/Netherlands (Dutch)
Settlement colonies---Britain (English)
Which PS Fen country was most associated with the fur trade?
For what purpose were many of the first English colonies created?
Religious freedom (Pilgrims, Puritans)
The New World served as a dumping ground for Britain. What does this mean?
Many of the people who came to the British colonies were people looking for a new start and
who were considered to be troublemakers or problems by the English. The American colonies
offered them a chance at a new life.
Pilgrims/Puritans: Persecuted in England because of their religious beliefs. LOOKING
Criminals: Georgia was set up as a colony for people from debtor’s prison
Indentured servants: poor would get free passage to the American colonies in return for
agreeing to work for a fixed number of years, and then be free to work on their own.