Chapter 3: Lesson 2 A New Republic Indigenous Native to a place. Europeans called them “Indians”. Native Americans = First Americans Countries that explored and settled in America first The first Europeans arrived in 1492 led by Christopher Columbus. He was hired by Spain to explore the new land. Spain England France REBELLION AND INDEPENDENCE IN THE U.S. The British government controlled the 13 U.S. colonies. The British government began to tax the colonists on goods sent from Britain and sold in the colonies. The colonists became angry. Representation Acting or speaking on behalf of someone or something. Revolution A sudden, complete change in government. Declaration An official statement. Independence Freedom to rule oneself. U.S. Independence On July 4th, 1776, the U.S. colonies declared independence from the British. The war lasted until 1781 when the British Army finally gave up. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed bringing an end to the war. Constitution A document that describes a written plan for governing. Republic A form of government in which the citizens elect representatives to make and enforce the laws. Amendment An addition or change to a document. Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the Constitution were called the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights guarantees the freedoms of all citizens in the United States.