202.1.1 Range of Materials

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Level 2 Certificate in Engineering
Unit 202: Handout 1
202: Principles of Engineering Technology Know Requirements for Materials in Engineering
Handout 1: Range of Materials
Outcome: 202.1.1 – State the Range of Materials used in common Engineering
Applications
Materials commonly used in engineering
Material grouping
Group
description
Ferrous metals
and alloys
contain the
element iron.
Ferrous metals
Steels are alloys
of iron and small
amounts of other
elements,
particularly
carbon and
manganese.
Do not contain
iron.
Each metal has
its own properties
and uses.
Non-ferrous
metals
In general, with
the exception of
copper, nonferrous metals
are mixed to form
alloys.
Group
members
Low, medium
and high
carbon steels
Stainless
steel
Cast iron
Aluminum
and
aluminum
alloys
Copper
Brass
Bronze
Many are
corrosive
resistant.
Lead
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Member description
Versatile and widely used. Higher
carbon steels are harder and can be
used as cutting tools
Contains high proportion of chromium
to provide corrosion resistance. Used
in catering to maintain hygiene
standards.
Contains iron and carbon. Does not
need high cost refinement. Can be
easily cast into complex shapes.
Lightest of commonly used metals.
Very good thermal & electrical
conductivity. Good corrosion
resistance. Mechanically weak –
difficult to weld and solder.
Very good thermal & electrical
conductivity. Good corrosion
resistance. Easy to solder and braze.
Relatively strong. Used in electrical
cables.
Alloy of copper (60%) and zinc (40%).
Corrosion resistant. Used for plumbing
fittings.
Alloy of copper (97%), zinc (2.5%) and
tin (0.5%). Used for coins.
Soft, heavy, toxic and malleable. Used
in batteries due to its high resistance to
corrosion by acids. Poor electrical
conductivity. Used in solder with tin
(60% tin & 40% lead) for
electrical/electronic work.
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Level 2 Certificate in Engineering
Material grouping
Group
description
Unit 202: Handout 1
Group
members
Hard & soft
woods
Composites
Plastics
materials
Diverse in their
make-up.
Non-metallic
materials
They can be
plastic, organic,
mineral, or
synthetic
materials.
Glass
Ceramics
Laminates
Rubber
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Member description
Natural material. Soft woods used for
mould patterns for casting. Hardwoods
used for tool handles.
Bonded components combined to gain
advantages of each component’s
properties. Examples: reinforced
concrete, plywood, corrugated
cardboard, motor vehicle belts and
glass reinforced plastic.
Lightweight, strong relative to weight.
Good electrical insulators. Good
resistance to corrosion especially
acids. Two types – thermoplastics
(set/reset by heating) and
thermosetting (set by chemical reaction
and cannot be reset).
Hard, brittle, transparent solid. Used for
lenses in optical instruments and spirit
level vials.
Very good thermal resistance.
Chemically bonded metal and nonmetal combination and have a very
rigid structure. Used for grinding wheel
grit, cutting-tool tips and high-voltage
insulators.
Constructed by uniting two or more
layers of material together. The layers
can be made from the same or
different materials. Plywood is an
example of an laminate. Vehicle
windscreens using laminating to
improve safety in case of an accident.
A natural product known for its
flexibility and durability. Used for belts,
tyres, ant-vibration mountings and
drive couplings.
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Level 2 Certificate in Engineering
Material grouping
Reinforcing
materials
Group
description
A combination of
materials that if
used on their own
would failure to
perform.
Unit 202: Handout 1
Group
members
Glass fibres
Carbon fibres
Exploit combined
strengths of
composite
materials.
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Aramid
Member description
Can be used with plastics. Combined
material is very strong and lightweight.
Corrosion resistant. Used for aircraft
and car bodies.
Tough lightweight material. Used in
aerospace, bicycles & motorbikes,
sailboats, fishing rods, sports rackets,
etc.
Heat- resistant and strong synthetic
fibres. Used in aerospace and military
applications – body armor.
Flame-resistant clothing and helmets.
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