Q4 Study Guide

Q4 Exam Study Guide. The exam is on Tuesday, May 26th. It will consist of 3540 multiple choice questions covering chapter 15 from the textbook and the
chemistry handouts.
Ch. 15….Cells, Organelles and Cell cycle
Section 15.1. Microscope and cell theory
1. What would the total magnification be of a specimen being viewed with a 10x eyepiece lens and
a 40x objective (nosepiece) lens?
Total magnification = 10 x 40 = 400x
2. List the 3 parts of the cell theory.
 All living things are composed of cells.
 Cells make up the structure and function
of livings.
 Cells are need to reproduce new cells.
3. Define the term resolution. What has better resolution, a light microscope or an electron
Resolution is the ability to determine
the difference between two closely
spaced objects. Electron microscopes
have better resolution than light
4. List and explain the function of two cell parts found in plants that are not found in animal cells?
Cell walls help support and protect the
plant cells. Also, chloroplasts are in
plants to make energy with
Section 15.2.
Cell organelles and multicellular organization.
Define the function of the following terms:
5. Cell membrane: The outer layer of all cells
which controls the substances that pass
in and out of the cell.
6. Nucleus: The control center of the cell and
it contains the DNA.
7. Chloroplast: Organelle found only in plants
that converts sunlight to energy.
Organelle that converts food into
energy that cells can use.
8. Mitochondria:
Organelle that looks like a sac to
store food and water.
9. Vacuole:
Acts like a trash compactor and
breaks down large food particles for the
10. Lysosome:
grain-shaped organelle that make
proteins for the cell
11. Ribosomes:
A watery-fluid that fills the spaces
between organelles.
12. Cytoplasm:
Organelle that receives proteins and
then packages and ships to other places.
13. Golgi:
A maze of passageways that
helps make substances and carries proteins.
14. Endoplasmic Reticulum:
15. What name is given to a group of similar cells working together?
16. What does division of labor mean to an organism?
Each different type of cell does a different
17. What are the bones of the skull, fingers/toes, upper leg and breastbone called?
Fingers/toes: Phalanges
Breastbone: Sternum
Upper leg: Femur; This is the biggest
bone in the body.
18. Which of the following are the 4 biochemical compounds that living things require?
A. Carbohydrates, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, Nucleus
B. Cell walls, Vacuoles, Chloroplasts, Sunlight
C. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins,
Nucleic Acids
D. None of these
19. What is the name for a group of proteins in living things that speed up chemical reactions?
What are the levels of organization in living things?
Cells  Tissues Organ  Organ System  Organism
Section 15.4 Reproduction of Cells
21. The main purpose of the cell cycle is to create new cells, how many cells would result from one cell
going through 3 consecutive cell cycles? Hint. Memorize and use 2x where x=number of cell cycles.
2 3 = 2x2x2 = 8 cells
22. What is replication and in what stage of the cell cycle does it occur?
Replication is the copying of DNA and it
occurs in stage one of the cell cycle called
23. What is the main purpose of the stage of the cell cycle termed “mitosis”?
In mitosis, the cell is rearranging the DNA
and separating the copies of DNA so that
each daughter cell gets an identical copy.
Two new nucleii are formed in mitosis.
24. What happens in cytokinesis?
In cytokinesis one cell splits (cytoplasm also
splits ) into two cells, creating daughter
25. Which stage of the cell cycle takes the longest?
26. What does epithelial tissue do?
Epithelial tissue covers the surface of your
body both inside and out.
27. If a cell needs one hour to complete the cell cycle, how many cells would result after 4 hours?
4 hours ÷ 1 hour = 4 cycles
2 4 = 16 cells
28. Which stage of the cell cycle takes the longest?
29. The cell membrane is made mostly of a double layer of molecules called
A. Lipids
B. proteins
C. nucleic acids
D. carbohydrates
30. What are hormones and what system of the body releases hormones as signals?
Hormones are chemical signals for growth
and development and they come out of
glands in the endocrine system.
31. Bone and fat are considered which of the four types of tissue?
Connective tissue
Chemistry. Review all chemistry handouts. Know all 20 chemical symbols.
What the charge and location of an electron?
Enraged Elliot Electron is negatively charged
and located in shells outside the nucleus.
What is the charge and location of a proton?
Perky Patty Proton is positively charged and
found inside the nucleus.
What is the charge and location of a neutron?
Nerdy Nelda Neutron is neutral (no charge)
and is also found in the nucleus.
What does the term valence mean?
The outer shell electrons which bind
with other atoms (participate in chemical
bonds) are called the valence electrons.
These are the electrons with the highest
What is the difference between a subscript and a coefficient?
Subscript is a number written below and
behind an element telling us the number
and ratio of atoms.
The coefficient is written in front of the
chemical symbol but it tells the number of
Count the oxygen atoms in the chemical formula, 2Na2HPO4
Oxygen atoms: 2 x 4 = 8 total O’s
What are the reactants in the chemical equation, Na + Cl2  NaCl
The reactants are the Na and the Cl2.
What is an ion? If an ion has 5 protons and 4 electrons, what is its overall charge?
An ion is an atom with a positive or
negative charge. The ion with 5 protons
and 4 electrons has an overall charge of +1.
What does the law of conservation of mass (energy) say?
This law means that in a chemical reaction,
the overall quantity of mass or energy does
not decrease or increase (cannot be
created or destroyed). Its changed into a
new form but stays the same.