Name: ___________________ Date: ____________________ Directions: Answer the questions using complete sentences. You may use your book and notes. 1. What did the 13th Amendment officially do? Ended slavery in the United States forever. 2. Read President Lincoln’s quote on page 197. Which group did his Reconstruction plan upset the most? Radical Republicans in Congress 3. What was the name of the organization that Congress set up to help former slaves by providing education, food, and other supplies? Freedman’s Bureau 4. What did the 14th Amendment do? Provided citizenship rights for all former slaves and was a response to the Black Codes. 5. What was President Lincoln’s plan for uniting the country after the Civil War? For Confederate states to set up new governments and rejoin the Union quickly. 6. What were the Black Codes intended to do? Limit travel, voting, and working rights of newly freed African Americans. 7. What happened to President Johnson when he objected to tough laws passed by Congress? Impeachment trials 8. What was the immediate effect of the 15th Amendment? African Americans began taking part in government by running for office and voting. 9. What system was developed in the South to keep plantations operating after slavery ended? Sharecropping 10. What were sharecroppers? Farmers who remained in debt to the landowners and were not independent. (Similar to slavery) 11. When did the official end of Reconstruction occur? In 1877 when President Hayes ordered the government soldiers out of the South. 12. What laws were passed to force the separation of races? Jim Crow Laws 13. What group did African Americans ask Congress for protection from? Ku Klux Klan 14. Who were carpetbaggers? Northerners who traveled South during Reconstruction. Some wanted to rebuild the South, but others just wanted to make money. They often carried suitcases made of carpet material. 15. What was the Tuskegee Institute and who opened it? A school opened by a former slave named Booker T. Washington. He believed that African Americans would receive equal treatment in time if they were well educated and learned useful skills. It was a school for African Americans that taught math, writing and science. They also learned trades such as painting, carpentry, and farming. 16. Who were scalawags? Southerners who helped the North during Reconstruction. They were considered “traitors” of the South. 17. Who was George Washington Carver? What did he teach at the Tuskegee Institute? He was the most famous teacher at the Tuskegee Institute. He taught African Americans how to grow crops such as peanuts, pecans, and sweet potatoes instead of cotton. Carver invented over 300 products made from peanuts. 18. Who assassinated Abraham Lincoln and why? John Wilkes Booth because he didn’t like the outcome of the Civil War. 19. What were Jim Crow Laws? Laws that kept African American separate from other Americans. These laws made segregation legal. 20. What were some disadvantages of sharecropping? It created the problem of debt, and continuing poverty. 21. Why did the Central Pacific Railroad hire Chinese workers? Because they would work for less money than other workers.