Growth and Expansion 1790-1825 February 2, 2015 Early Industry and Inventions • A. Industrial Revolution- factory machines began replacing hand tools and manufacturing replaced farming as the main form of work – Samuel Slater built first factory in New England – Factories were built near water – New sources of power such as steam replaced human and animal power • The economy gradually shifted to manufacturing which replaced farming Free Enterprise system – American economy – people are free to buy, sell, and produce whatever they want. Cities come of Age • A. Growth of factories made the surrounding cities grow as well – 1. poor sanitary conditions – no sewers, dirty water – caused disease – cholera and yellow fever – 2. Some advantages • • • • Variety of jobs and steady wages Libraries, museums, and shops Theaters and music http://miniature-earth.com/ TODAYS WORLD New Technology • Steam boat- Robert Fulton- could move against the current (Clermont) • Telegraph- Samuel F.B. Morse- pulses of energy sent along an electric wire for communication (Morse Code) • Steel Plow- John Deere- made farming easier • Mechanical reaper- Cyrus McCormick- made farming easier Eli Whitney- built the cotton gin which separates seeds from cotton Interchangeable partsparts Scientific discoveries that work Agriculture Expands • In 1820’s more than 65 percent of Americans were farmers • Mainly due to the demand for cotton growing steadily Moving West • Population Expands – U.S. census in 1790 counted 4million people – 30 yrs. later, the population was 10 million with 2 million living west of the Appalachian Mountains – National Road – built in 1806 – went to west – River Travel –comfort flowed North and South Canals • Canals – man made or artificial waterway – 1. Erie Canal – 363 miles that joined the east to the Midwest – 2. teams of mules hauled boats and barges along the canal – 3. by 1850 there were 3,600 miles of canals • Western Settlement- four new states added between 1791-1803 – – – – Vermont Kentucky Tennessee Ohio • Five more added between 1816-1821 – – – – – Indiana Mississippi Illinois Alabama Maine Unity and Sectionalism • The Era of Good Feelings- James Monroe • Became 5th president in 1816 • A time of few political differences-represented a united America • Extremely popular president: Last Founding Father as president Sectionalism Grows • Leading Voices for different sections of the country • Problems grew over: – – – – – States rights Slavery Tariffs National Banks Internal Improvements Unemployment soared State banks failed Recession • John C. Calhoun- War Hawk from the south – Defended slavery • Henry Clay-War Hawk from the west- “great compromiser” – Favored a more active role for the central government in promoting the country’s growth • Daniel Websternationalist from the north – Thought that slavery was evil Missouri Compromise • Problems over new states entering the union- Conflict over slave states and free states • Compromise by Henry Clay that allowed a balance between the north and the south • Representation • Missouri came into the Union as a slave state and Maine came in as a free state • http://www.teachingamerica nhistory.org/neh/interactives/ sectionalism/lesson1/ Foreign Affairs • Border created with Canada • Andrew Jackson invaded Spanish Florida • Spain loosing power: – Possible unrest – Possible European involvement Monroe Doctrine Because of unrest and possible European involvement – President James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine: America would oppose any new colonization in North and South America and would stop it with force if necessary.