Creating a Nation: Beginnings to 1877

The Nation Matures
 US entered an “Era of Good Feelings”
 Strong nationalism
 James Monroe became nation’s 5th president
 The Missouri Compromise
 MO applied to enter as a slave state
Upset balance of power in Senate
Maine requested admission to
Union as a separate state
Agreed to admit Maine as a
free-state, MO as a slave-state
Slavery would be prohibited
north of MO’s southern border
The Nation Matures
 American Nationalism
 Shifted from world affairs to national growth
 Spain’s colonies were fighting for independence
 President Monroe proclaimed the Monroe Doctrine
 Western Hemisphere was closed to European nations
 1816 – Rep. John C. Calhoun (SC) introduced Second
Bank of United States
 Power to issue currency and control state banks
 Tariff of 1816
 Protective tariff to raise the price of import
 Chief Justice John Marshall’s Court
 McCullouch vs. Maryland
Life in the North
 1815-1860 many foreigners came to America
 Some went West, others settled in the cities
 Fought against immigrants who did not fit the WASP
 Workers began to organize and form unions
 Prices dropped in 1860, leading to lower wages and
poorer conditions
 Employers did not want to work with them, and courts
ruled against them
 Agriculture remained the leading economic activity
 Until late 1800s
The Land of Cotton
 Farming was even larger in the South
 16% of nation’s manufacturing
 Thrived on cash crops
Tobacco, cotton, rice, and sugarcane
 Cotton Becomes King
 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin
Cotton production soared
Increased demand for enslaved labor
 Slavery
 Slaves were given all types of tasks
 Abide by Slave Codes
 Found methods to resist slavery
The Age of Jackson
 Elected president in 1828
 Spoils System
Wanted ordinary citizens to play a role in government
Kitchen Cabinet
 Growing Rift
Passed a large tariff in 1832
South Carolina adopted an
ordinance of nullification
Jackson dismantled the Second
Sent nation in to a Depression
 Trail of Tears
Ordered all Cherokee to a new land
with the Indian Removal Act
A Reforming Society
 Temperance
 Movement to stop the consumption of alcohol
 Prisons, Asylums, and School Reform
 Worked on rehabilitating prisoners
 Recognized mentally handicapped and sent to asylums
 Established a system of public education for all children
 Women’s Rights
 1848 – Seneca Falls Convention
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
 Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
 Focus on suffrage
A Reforming Society
 Abolitionism
 Divided the nation
 Religious groups viewed slavery as a sin
 Free African Americans took prominent roles
Frederick Douglass
 Sojourner Truth
 Religious antislavery speeches attracted huge crowds