A&P Sem 1 Final Exam Review 2013

Semester One Final Exam Topics to Review
Chapter 1
 List the levels of organization of the human body
 Define homeostasis and describe a homeostatic mechanism including its three major parts.
 Describe a negative feedback mechanism and how it relates to homeostasis
 List and describe the directional terminology for the human body
 List and describe the cardinal planes of the human body
Chapter 2
 Explain what the pH scale measures and the relative grade between each level.
 Differentiate between an acid and base based upon their chemical components
 List the most common elements in the human body
 Describe the structures and functions of the 4 basic organic molecules
Chapter 3
 Cell Transport: Describe the processes of active transport, facilitated diffusion, filtration and passive
transport and describe the circumstances by which each is used.
 Explain the processes of and differentiate between diffusion, osmosis and dialysis.
 Give a detailed description of the cell membrane structure and its functions.
Chapter 4
 Explain the functions of enzymes and describe the steps of an enzyme catalyzed reaction
 Explain metabolism in terms of anabolism and catabolism
 Explain the basic process of how ATP’s are synthesized and used.
 Describe the process of protein synthesis.
 Give a list of ways proteins can be denatured.
Chapter 5
 Describe the general characteristics and functions of 4 major tissue types (epithelial, connective,
muscular, and nervous)
Chapter 6
 Describe the structure and function of the three major layers of the skin (epidermis, dermis,
 Describe the location and function of accessory organs of the skin
 Describe the type of cell most likely to develop skin cancer
 Describe the structure and function melanocytes
 Describe the structure and function nails
 Describe the locations and functions of Apocrine and Eccrine Glands
 Describe the process of regulation of body temperature
 Explain the process by which common acne occurs
Chapter 9
 Distinguish between the central and peripheral nervous system.
 Name and describe the subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system.
 Identify the structures of a neuron and explain their functions including the synapse.
 Identify and describe the three structural categories of neurons.
 Identify the three functional categories of neurons, the primary function of each type and the structural
category to which each belongs.
 Describe the functions the different types of neuroglial cells we have discussed and identify which
division (CNS or PNS) of the nervous system in which each functions.
 What is the purpose of myelin and which types of neurons tend to be myelinated.
 Distinguish the functions of white matter and grey matter as well as their relative locations in the brain
and spinal cord
 Describe the changes in the neuron cell membrane during the propagation of an impulse including the
relative sodium and potassium concentrations.
 Describe the process by which neurotransmitters are released by the presynaptic neuron and
recognized by the postsynaptic neuron.
 Distinguish between an inhibitory and excitatory response
 Describe the structure and relative position of each layer of the meninges.
 Describe the function and location of cerebrospinal fluid.
 Identify the location and general functions of the four major regions of the brain (Cerebrum,
Cerebellum, Diencephalon, and Brainstem.)
 Describe the function and brain region (Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, and Brainstem) of each
of the following: ventricles, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, insula, occipital lobe, corpus
callosum, thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus, cerebral aqueduct, midbrain, pons, medulla, arbor
vitae, reticular formation and limbic system
Chapter 15
Identify the structures of the digestive system
Distinguish mechanical and chemical digestion.
o Know the areas of the alimentary canal where each occurs
o The chemicals involved
 The types of foods they act upon
 The organs responsible for the production and secretion of those chemicals.
Identify the layers of the alimentary canal and their functions
Use this side to
Use this side to
List and describe the various types of joints
List and describe the various movement directions.
Identify the bones of the axial vs. appendicular skeleton
Posterior (dorsal)
Anterior (ventral)
Frontal (coronal)
Use these to